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Section 3.3. Covers the Physics, Symbol and I-V characteristics of Zener Diode, Tunnel Diode and Backward Diode.

3.3.quantum mechanical diodes.

Till now we have studied classical diodes. Classical diodes are fabricated using non-degenerate semiconductor. Doping of 10 17 /cc or less is non-degenerate semi-conductor. Doping in the range of 10 18 /cc or more gives rise to degenerate semi-conductor.

In non-degenerate semi-conductors we have drift and diffusion of carriers. In degenerate semi-conductor apart from drift and diffusion we have band-to-band tunneling which is a purely quantum-mechanical transport mechanism.

I have talked about Quantum Mechanical tunneling in Chapter 1, Part 8. We will briefly review it in this Section.

An electron in an infinite potential well can never come out of the potential well. Electron in finite potential well with thick potential wall can come out of the potential well if by photon excitation or by thermal excitation it gains sufficient energy to cross the surface potential barrier and escape into vacuum above 0 eV energy level. These processes are known as Photoionic-emission or Thermoionic-emission. But there is a third case where the electron is trapped in a potential well with thin potential walls. The potential walls are as thin as 10A° to 100A° as shown in the Figure ( ) in Chapter 1 Part8 .In this case there is a finite probability of finding the electron outside the potential well by the process of tunneling.

The Tunneling factor is calculated to be:

Substituting the values of the different parameters, the values of Tunneling Factor is tabulated in Table 3.3.1.

Table 3.3.1.Qunatum Mechanical Tunneling Ratio for different Wall thickness and different Barrier Potential.

W (qV 1 -E) Exponent term T Comments
10A° 1eV -10.2463 3.5×10 -5 With 10A° wall thickness and 1eV well depth there is a very low probability of finding 3.5 electron in 100,000 electrons.
5A° 1eV -5.12317 6×10 -3 With wall thickness reduced to 5A° but well depth kept constant tunneling increases to 6 out of 1000electrons.
1A° 1eV -1.02463 0.36 With wall thickness reduced to 1A° but depth well kept constant tunneling increases to 36% .
1A° 10eV -3.24018 0.04 With wall thickness kept at 1A° but depth well increased to 10eV tunneling again decreases to 4% .
1A° 100eV -10.2463 3.5×10 -5 With wall thickness kept at 1A° but depth well increased to 100eV tunneling drastically decreases to . 3.5 electron in 100,000 electrons.

As the doping density is increased we encounter 4 different classes of devices:

  1. Classical Diode with an Avalanche Breakdown Voltage of BV A from 30V to 100V.
  2. Zener Diode with a zener breakdown of V Z = 4V and below.
  3. Backward Diode which conducts in forward as well as backwarddirections.
  4. Tunnel Diode which has N-Type Negative Resistance Region(NIR).

The I-V characteristics of these four diodes are shown in Figure 3.19.

We are considering an abrupt Si-diode with symmetrical N-type and P-type doping. Therefore the the built-in potential is given by the following formula:

Depletion Width (d) is given by the following fomula:

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fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
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That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
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or in general
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in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Cied
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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