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Another example of energy conversion occurs in a solar cell. Sunlight impinging on a solar cell (see [link] ) produces electricity, which in turn can be used to run an electric motor. Energy is converted from the primary source of solar energy into electrical energy and then into mechanical energy.

A solar-powered aircraft flying over the sea. Solar cells are on the upper surface of the wings, where they are exposed to sunlight.
Solar energy is converted into electrical energy by solar cells, which is used to run a motor in this solar-power aircraft. (credit: NASA)
Energy of various objects and phenomena
Object/phenomenon Energy in joules
Big Bang 10 68 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"68"} } } {}
Energy released in a supernova 10 44 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"44"} } } {}
Fusion of all the hydrogen in Earth’s oceans 10 34 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"34"} } } {}
Annual world energy use 4 × 10 20 size 12{4 times "10" rSup { size 8{"20"} } } {}
Large fusion bomb (9 megaton) 3 . 8 × 10 16 size 12{3 "." 8 times "10" rSup { size 8{"16"} } } {}
1 kg hydrogen (fusion to helium) 6 . 4 × 10 14 size 12{6 "." 4 times "10" rSup { size 8{"14"} } } {}
1 kg uranium (nuclear fission) 8 . 0 × 10 13 size 12{8 "." 0 times "10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } } {}
Hiroshima-size fission bomb (10 kiloton) 4 . 2 × 10 13 size 12{4 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{"13"} } } {}
90,000-ton aircraft carrier at 30 knots 1 . 1 × 10 10 size 12{1 "." 1 times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } } {}
1 barrel crude oil 5 . 9 × 10 9 size 12{5 "." 9 times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {}
1 ton TNT 4 . 2 × 10 9 size 12{4 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {}
1 gallon of gasoline 1 . 2 × 10 8 size 12{1 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } } {}
Daily home electricity use (developed countries) 7 × 10 7 size 12{7 times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } } {}
Daily adult food intake (recommended) 1 . 2 × 10 7 size 12{1 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } } {}
1000-kg car at 90 km/h 3 . 1 × 10 5 size 12{3 "." 1 times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } } {}
1 g fat (9.3 kcal) 3 . 9 × 10 4 size 12{3 "." 9 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } } {}
ATP hydrolysis reaction 3 . 2 × 10 4 size 12{3 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } } {}
1 g carbohydrate (4.1 kcal) 1 . 7 × 10 4 size 12{1 "." 7 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } } {}
1 g protein (4.1 kcal) 1 . 7 × 10 4 size 12{1 "." 7 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } } {}
Tennis ball at 100 km/h 22
Mosquito ( 10 –2 g at 0.5 m/s ) 1 . 3 × 10 6 size 12{1 "." 3 times "10" rSup { size 8{-6} } } {}
Single electron in a TV tube beam 4 . 0 × 10 15 size 12{4 "." 0 times "10" rSup { size 8{-"15"} } } {}
Energy to break one DNA strand 10 19 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{-"19"} } } {}

Efficiency

Even though energy is conserved in an energy conversion process, the output of useful energy or work will be less than the energy input. The efficiency     Eff size 12{ ital "Eff"} {} of an energy conversion process is defined as

Efficiency ( Eff ) = useful energy or work output total energy input = W out E in . size 12{"Efficiency " \( ital "Eff" \) = { {"useful energy or work output"} over {"total energy input"} } = { {W rSub { size 8{"out"} } } over {E rSub { size 8{"in"} } } } "." } {}

[link] lists some efficiencies of mechanical devices and human activities. In a coal-fired power plant, for example, about 40% of the chemical energy in the coal becomes useful electrical energy. The other 60% transforms into other (perhaps less useful) energy forms, such as thermal energy, which is then released to the environment through combustion gases and cooling towers.

Efficiency of the human body and mechanical devices
Activity/device Efficiency (%) Representative values
Cycling and climbing 20
Swimming, surface 2
Swimming, submerged 4
Shoveling 3
Weightlifting 9
Steam engine 17
Gasoline engine 30
Diesel engine 35
Nuclear power plant 35
Coal power plant 42
Electric motor 98
Compact fluorescent light 20
Gas heater (residential) 90
Solar cell 10

Phet explorations: masses and springs

A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. Transport the lab to different planets. A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energies for each spring.

Masses and Springs

Section summary

  • The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy is constant in any process. Energy may change in form or be transferred from one system to another, but the total remains the same.
  • When all forms of energy are considered, conservation of energy is written in equation form as KE i + PE i + W nc + OE i = KE f + PE f + OE f size 12{"KE" rSub { size 8{i} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{i} } +W rSub { size 8{"nc"} } +"OE" rSub { size 8{i} } ="KE" rSub { size 8{f} } +"PE" rSub { size 8{f} } +"OE" rSub { size 8{f} } } {} , where OE size 12{"OE"} {} is all other forms of energy besides mechanical energy.
  • Commonly encountered forms of energy include electric energy, chemical energy, radiant energy, nuclear energy, and thermal energy.
  • Energy is often utilized to do work, but it is not possible to convert all the energy of a system to work.
  • The efficiency Eff size 12{ ital "Eff"} {} of a machine or human is defined to be Eff = W out E in size 12{ ital "Eff"= { {W rSub { size 8{"out"} } } over {E rSub { size 8{"in"} } } } } {} , where W out size 12{W rSub { size 8{"out"} } } {} is useful work output and E in size 12{E rSub { size 8{"in"} } } {} is the energy consumed.

Conceptual questions

Consider the following scenario. A car for which friction is not negligible accelerates from rest down a hill, running out of gasoline after a short distance. The driver lets the car coast farther down the hill, then up and over a small crest. He then coasts down that hill into a gas station, where he brakes to a stop and fills the tank with gasoline. Identify the forms of energy the car has, and how they are changed and transferred in this series of events. (See [link] .)

A car coasting downhill, moving over a crest then again moving downhill and finally stopping at a gas station. Each of these positions is labeled with an arrow pointing downward.
A car experiencing non-negligible friction coasts down a hill, over a small crest, then downhill again, and comes to a stop at a gas station.

Describe the energy transfers and transformations for a javelin, starting from the point at which an athlete picks up the javelin and ending when the javelin is stuck into the ground after being thrown.

Do devices with efficiencies of less than one violate the law of conservation of energy? Explain.

List four different forms or types of energy. Give one example of a conversion from each of these forms to another form.

List the energy conversions that occur when riding a bicycle.

Problems&Exercises

Using values from [link] , how many DNA molecules could be broken by the energy carried by a single electron in the beam of an old-fashioned TV tube? (These electrons were not dangerous in themselves, but they did create dangerous x rays. Later model tube TVs had shielding that absorbed x rays before they escaped and exposed viewers.)

4 × 10 4  molecules size 12{4 times "10" rSup { size 8{4} } " molecules"} {}

Using energy considerations and assuming negligible air resistance, show that a rock thrown from a bridge 20.0 m above water with an initial speed of 15.0 m/s strikes the water with a speed of 24.8 m/s independent of the direction thrown.

Equating ΔPE g size 12{Δ"PE" rSub { size 8{g} } } {} and ΔKE size 12{Δ"KE"} {} , we obtain v = 2 gh + v 0 2 = 2 ( 9.80 m /s 2 ) ( 20.0 m ) + ( 15.0 m/s ) 2 = 24.8 m/s size 12{v= sqrt {2 ital "gh"+v rSub { size 8{0} rSup { size 8{2} } } } = sqrt {2 \( 9 "." "80"" m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } \) \( "20" "." 0" m" \) + \( "15" "." "0 m/s" \) rSup { size 8{2} } } ="24" "." 8" m/s"} {}

If the energy in fusion bombs were used to supply the energy needs of the world, how many of the 9-megaton variety would be needed for a year’s supply of energy (using data from [link] )? This is not as far-fetched as it may sound—there are thousands of nuclear bombs, and their energy can be trapped in underground explosions and converted to electricity, as natural geothermal energy is.

(a) Use of hydrogen fusion to supply energy is a dream that may be realized in the next century. Fusion would be a relatively clean and almost limitless supply of energy, as can be seen from [link] . To illustrate this, calculate how many years the present energy needs of the world could be supplied by one millionth of the oceans’ hydrogen fusion energy. (b) How does this time compare with historically significant events, such as the duration of stable economic systems?

(a) 25 × 10 6 years size 12{"25" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `"years"} {}

(b) This is much, much longer than human time scales.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Selected chapters of college physics for secondary 5. OpenStax CNX. Jun 19, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11535/1.1
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