A description of the Huffman source encoding algorithm.
One particular
source coding algorithm is the Huffman encoding algorithm. It is a source coding
algorithm which approaches, and sometimes achieves, Shannon's bound forsource compression. A brief discussion of the algorithm is also given in
another module .
Huffman encoding algorithm
Sort source outputs in decreasing order of their probabilities
Merge the two least-probable outputs into a single output whose
probability is the sum of the corresponding probabilities.
If the number of remaining outputs is more than 2, then go to
step 1.
Arbitrarily assign 0 and 1 as codewords for the two remaining
outputs.
If an output is the result of the merger of two outputs in a
preceding step, append the current codeword with a 0 and a 1 toobtain the codeword the the preceding outputs and repeat step 5. If
no output is preceded by another output in a preceding step, thenstop.
$\mathrm{Average\; length}=\frac{1}{2}\times 1+\frac{1}{4}\times 2+\frac{1}{8}\times 3+\frac{1}{8}\times 3=\frac{14}{8}$ . As you may recall, the entropy of the source was
also
$H(X)=\frac{14}{8}$ .
In this case, the Huffman code achieves the lower bound of
$\frac{14}{8}\frac{\mathrm{bits}}{\mathrm{output}}$ .
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field .
1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc
2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc
3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc.
and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change .
maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world