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Other aquatic factors

Some abiotic factors, such as oxygen, are important in aquatic ecosystems as well as terrestrial environments. Terrestrial animals obtain oxygen from the air they breathe. Oxygen availability can be an issue for organisms living at very high elevations, however, where there are fewer molecules of oxygen in the air. In aquatic systems, the concentration of dissolved oxygen is related to water temperature and the speed at which the water moves. Cold water has more dissolved oxygen than warmer water. In addition, salinity, current, and tide can be important abiotic factors in aquatic ecosystems.

Other terrestrial factors

Wind can be an important abiotic factor because it influences the rate of evaporation and transpiration. The physical force of wind is also important because it can move soil, water, or other abiotic factors, as well as an ecosystem’s organisms.

Fire is another terrestrial factor that can be an important agent of disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems. Some organisms are adapted to fire and, thus, require the high heat associated with fire to complete a part of their life cycle. For example, the jack pine—a coniferous tree—requires heat from fire for its seed cones to open ( [link] ). Through the burning of pine needles, fire adds nitrogen to the soil and limits competition by destroying undergrowth. Closer to home, the tallgrass prairie ecosystem of the Kansas Flint Hills is dependent on fire and grazing by large herbivores (formerly bison, now cattle). In the absence of such disturbances, the grasslands of the Flint Hills become scrubby cedar forests in just a few decades.

 Photo shows two pine cones that are tightly closed and attached to a branch.
(a) The mature cones of the jack pine (Pinus banksiana) open only when exposed to high temperatures, such as during a forest fire. A fire is likely to kill most vegetation, so a seedling that germinates after a fire is more likely to receive ample sunlight than one that germinates under normal conditions. (credit: USDA) (b) A controlled burn moves across the Konza Prairie Biological Station. Fire is a critical determinant in the maintenance of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem. (photo by D.A. Rintoul)

Abiotic factors influencing plant growth

Temperature and moisture are important influences on plant production and the amount of organic matter available to other organisms (net primary productivity). Net primary productivity is an estimation of all of the organic matter available to organisms in other trophic levels; it is calculated as the total amount of carbon incorporated into plant tissues per year minus the amount that is used during plant metabolism. In terrestrial environments, net primary productivity is estimated by measuring the aboveground biomass per unit area, which is the total mass of living plants, excluding roots. This means that a large percentage of plant biomass which exists underground is not included in this measurement. Net primary productivity is an important variable when considering differences between biomes. Very productive biomes have a high level of net primary productivity, i.e., a large amount of energy at the primary producer trophic level.

Annual biomass production is directly related to the abiotic components of the environment. Environments with the greatest amount of biomass have conditions in which photosynthesis, plant growth, and the resulting net primary productivity are optimized. The climate of these areas is warm, wet, and usually stable year-round. Photosynthesis can proceed at a high rate, enzymes can work most efficiently, and stomata can remain open without the risk of excessive transpiration. Together, these factors lead to the maximal amount of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) moving into the plant, resulting in high biomass production. This biomass produces several important resources for other living things, including habitat and food. Conversely, dry and cold environments have lower photosynthetic rates and therefore less biomass. The animal communities, and the complexity of the food webs, will also be affected by the decrease in available energy at the primary producer level.

Questions & Answers

Black market what is the meaning
Bless Reply
where there is illegal transactions of goods or services. where there illegal goods or services are sold.
Azhar
Scarcity is the major problem of any economy which is the limited resources an economy has in order to produce its country's unlimited wants/needs. Therefore, scarcity is the key term beyond the study of Economics.
Bature Reply
what is supply
Rahul Reply
Like the demand, the supply demonstrates the quantities that will be  sold at a certain price. But unlike the demand, the supply relationship  shows an upward slope. This means that the higher the price, the higher the  quantity supplied.  Producers supply more at a higher
Nazneen
or we can say that By supply we mean various quantatirs of a commodity which a producer will offer for sale at different possible prices over a given period of time
Nazneen
What is scarcity?
Jubille Reply
having unlimited needs and wants in a world of limited resources
William
what are the indicator of over population
Accorobatic Reply
Inefficiency of natural resources
Adekunle
Low PCI .
abhinav
resources are limited and wants are unlimited
Nazneen
limited resources
Nazneen
what product market?
Gayflor Reply
explain demand
Bless Reply
what is economics
Murali
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.Economics focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work.
Preeti
ok
SAGAR
Pls what is national income?
Ishmael
demand is the number of buyers. as the price of goods is increase, the buyers will not consider to buy the goods, so the demand will decreases
Pung
National Income is the aggregate monetary value of all final goods and services produced in an economy in an year .
abhinav
Why pecularities of land has no economic significance, What the economic bad, effictive demand?
James
Demand is a quantity of goods that a consumer is willing to buy at different prices over a given period of time
Nazneen
Define law of demand
Nazneen
what is deadweightloss
francis Reply
hi
Bless
deadweight loss is the allocative inefficiency.... when the equilibrium for good or services is not achived.
Azhar
hi
Azhar
hi
azaloo
hii too
Jackson
Hello
Micah
how are you all?
Azhar
I am here been sick but here
Amanda
may you get well soon Amanda
Azhar
What are the implications of classical Economics?
Micah
What are the implications of classical Economics school of thought?
Micah
Dead weight loss is an inefficient allocation of resources, especially through taxation or restrictions.
Ezeigwe
Classical Economics had an influenced by ancient economic principle and theory.
Ezeigwe
yec
Yasinta
nice
Amanda
hello please what is localization of industry
Bless Reply
price is tantalisingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
Sinit Reply
Price is tantalizingly the only factor determining demand which can be analyze the view
Sinit
what is scarcity
Sharkdanny Reply
the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage.
Abdirahin
what is meant by an abnormal demand curve?
Samuel Reply
what is microeconomics
Berun Reply
micronomics can be define as that part of Economics that deals with small scale business. e.g. House hold stuff
Amodu
Micro economics is the study of individuals, households and firms' behavior un decision making and allocation of resources
Christian
what is underemployment
Xornam Reply
It is the situation where the available resources are not used to it optimum
Bless
state the law of diminishing returns
Bless
Bless, the law of diminishing returns state that one point, adding a single worker will result in a decrease of production.
David
it is a situation where by people are employ but work under their potential
Akua
David please go into details kk
Bless
Akua pls when you say people alone? what about facilities?
Bless
Definition of underemployment. 1 : the condition in which people in a labor force are employed at less than full-time or regular jobs or at jobs inadequate with respect to their training or economic needs
Boahen
OK that is good
Set
I am new here
Taimoor
what does law of demand says?
Samuel
with a diagram explain fairy elastic demand
Samuel
comprehensive answer for public finance is the money that a government has available to spend from taxes and borrowing.
wilflay Reply
what then comprises of public opinion
Raphael
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of biology. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11569/1.25
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