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This is a summary of the time-domain effects and Gain&Volume.

Approach: time-domain and effects

Once the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) has taken place, we are able to apply our time-domain effects: Reverb, Flange, and Distortion. When the effects have been implemented, we then output our modified signal into a plot where we are able to analyze the new spectrum of our signal. The last two effects, Gain and Volume, are included at the end.


Flanging is another time-domain audio effect which happens when two audio signals are mixed together, with the requirement that one of the signals is time-delayed by a very small amount of time. An analogy we like is the simultaneous playing of two tape recorders playing the same track. Then if we pause one of them for a small amount of time and then hit play, the combined audio of the two tape recorders is flanging.

In our coding, we used 15 refresh periods.


By definition, reverberation is the lingering of sound in a given space once the original sound is removed. It is not necessarily termed “echo” as reverb is the decay of a large number of echoes when the sound is absorbed. Thus, once the sound signal stops, the reverberated reflections carry on and gradually decrease in amplitude until they zero out.

In our implementation, we used 15 consecutive refresh periods. This wasn’t incredibly realistic as we could have modified our design to produce a better reverb, but this allowed our program to function smoothly without memory overflows in MATLAB.

The main visual difference between flange and reverb was the persistence of sound once the song/audio clip ended.


A distortion that we introduced in our equalizer can also be referred to as “audio clipping” as we cut off signals above a certain amplitude.

This is also called hard clipping. Distortion is usually an unwanted effect except in music, such as Gabber (150-220 beats-per-minute hardcore techno) or as an electric guitar effect.

In order to guarantee a visual representation, we went ahead and clipped our signals at the 0.5 mark in amplitude.


In our equalizer, we implemented a gain control which provided for the increase of our input signal’s amplitude for a given frequency band. We had 10 frequency bands of which we could modify the gain levels.


Volume is the implementation of gain for all frequencies.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
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Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2007. OpenStax CNX. Dec 22, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10503/1.1
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