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Panksepp points out that when animals are in an appetitive state, anticipating a reward such as food or sex with a receptive mate, dopamine levels increase. But once an appetitive state turns into a consummatory state, dopamine levels immediately begin to decrease. So increasing levels of dopamine are not associated with consummatory, pleasurable activity. Rather the opposite is true. Pleasure is associated with decreasing dopamine levels. This does not mean that "reward" circuitry does not exist. Panksepp writes: "Temporal and frontal cortices contain an abundance of neurons that fire only in response to stimuli that have acquired meaning by being predictably associated with rewards."

That just means that once someone gets a reward they are satisfied. Most types of reward increase the level of dopamine in the brain, however pleasure apparently decreases dopamine levels.

Since humans think less when they are dreaming, it makes sense that dreams are emotional and not logical. I could say that they are driven by their 'reward system' when they are dreaming - the higher intellectual functions of their brain are shut off. They retreat into a more simplistic emotional state where they turn normal daily activity into some sort of silly movie.

During dreams, connection to your voluntary muscles is disabled. However, the person you are in your dream can move and it is as if then you can move your muscles in your mind. - REM sleep, the stage of sleep during which dreaming occurs, is characterized by paralysis of the voluntary muscles. Why? The phenomenon is known as REM atonia and prevents you from acting out your dreams while you're asleep. Basically, because motor neurons are not stimulated, your body does not move.

While dreams are often heavily influenced by our personal experiences, researchers have found that certain themes are very common across different cultures. For example, people from all over the world frequently dream about being chased, being attacked or falling.

So not only are dreams emotional, they also have a physical presence. - In your dreams you are really there and you can feel what is happening to you. That is why dreams of being chased, attacked or falling are fun, because you can 'feel' those sensations.

So in your dreams, not only are you using your imagination to run or move around, you are using your imagination to create worlds to run and move around in. Furthermore, these generated worlds are mostly from life events that are easily recalled in memory or simply more emotional.

So why does your mind make the dreams it makes? Does it select more emotional things to dream about or things that are simply more fun to dream about? (Apparently it does both)

So dreams are more emotional, and I think they also achieve stimulation from a more basic, reward based brain chemistry. The nature of emotion is reward based and simplistic, so it makes sense that dreams are that way since you aren't thinking.

Images in dreaming

How does the mind construct images in dreams? What do dream images look like? This is a much more complicated question than simply asking if someone dreams in color or black and white. The mind could reconstruct video - like if you watched a movie clip and then your mind replayed it in your dream. But how would your mind reconstruct the movie clip? It would surely alter it in a way similar to how dreams are different from ordinary experiences.

Loch Leven and Pap of Glencoe mountain in background
Loch Leven and Pap of Glencoe mountain By Mark Pettinelli

The above image represents what seems to me dream images are like. They are dulled down - since in dreams you are thinking less - but they are more emotionally potent. So the glowing colors make this image more emotional (similar to how gold is an emotional color), and they make it easy to see the image without thinking, as if seeing something glow in the dark.

My guess would be that when someone closes their eyes the patterns people can see on their eyelids (kind of like glowing outlines of abstract objects) help them to go to sleep because they are similar to dream images - it is dark because your eyes are closed and the faint lines or colors are very abstract so this low level of abstraction - similar to a dream - helps induce relaxation and sleep.

Dreaming and sleeping unlocks and uses the power of the unconscious mind. The unconscious is not as clear as things that are conscious, in order to think something and understand it it has to be clear, if it is more abstract or artistic the the thing could be described as being more unconscious.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Emotion, cognition, and social interaction - information from psychology and new ideas topics self help. OpenStax CNX. Jul 11, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10403/1.71
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