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In contrast, when a force exerted on the system has a component in the direction of motion, such as in [link] (d), work is done—energy is transferred to the briefcase. Finally, in [link] (e), energy is transferred from the briefcase to a generator. There are two good ways to interpret this energy transfer. One interpretation is that the briefcase’s weight does work on the generator, giving it energy. The other interpretation is that the generator does negative work on the briefcase, thus removing energy from it. The drawing shows the latter, with the force from the generator upward on the briefcase, and the displacement downward. This makes θ = 180 º size 12{θ="180"°} {} , and cos 180 º = –1 size 12{"cos 180"°= +- 1} {} ; therefore, W size 12{W} {} is negative.

Calculating work

Work and energy have the same units. From the definition of work, we see that those units are force times distance. Thus, in SI units, work and energy are measured in newton-meters . A newton-meter is given the special name joule    (J), and 1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m 2 /s 2 size 12{1" J"=1" N" cdot m=1" kg" cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } "/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} . One joule is not a large amount of energy; it would lift a small 100-gram apple a distance of about 1 meter.

Calculating the work you do to push a lawn mower across a large lawn

How much work is done on the lawn mower by the person in [link] (a) if he exerts a constant force of 75 . 0 N size 12{"75" "." 0" N"} {} at an angle 35 º size 12{"35"°} {} below the horizontal and pushes the mower 25 . 0 m size 12{"25" "." 0" m"} {} on level ground? Convert the amount of work from joules to kilocalories and compare it with this person’s average daily intake of 10 , 000 kJ size 12{"10","000"" kJ"} {} (about 2400 kcal size 12{"2400"" kcal"} {} ) of food energy. One calorie (1 cal) of heat is the amount required to warm 1 g of water by 1 º C size 12{1°C} {} , and is equivalent to 4 . 184 J size 12{4 "." "184"" J"} {} , while one food calorie (1 kcal) is equivalent to 4184 J size 12{"4184"" J"} {} .

Strategy

We can solve this problem by substituting the given values into the definition of work done on a system, stated in the equation W = Fd cos θ size 12{W= ital "Fd"" cos"θ} {} . The force, angle, and displacement are given, so that only the work W size 12{W} {} is unknown.

Solution

The equation for the work is

W = Fd cos θ . size 12{W= ital "Fd"" cos"θ} {}

Substituting the known values gives

W = 75.0 N 25.0 m cos 35.0º = 1536 J = 1.54 × 10 3 J. alignl { stack { size 12{W= left ("75" "." "0 N" right ) left ("25" "." "0 m" right )"cos " left ("35" "." 0° right )} {} #size 12{" "="1536"" J"=1 "." "54" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J" "." } {} } } {}

Converting the work in joules to kilocalories yields W = ( 1536 J ) ( 1 kcal / 4184 J ) = 0 . 367 kcal size 12{W= \( "1536"`J \) \( 1`"kcal"/"4184"`J \) =0 "." "367"`"kcal"} {} . The ratio of the work done to the daily consumption is

W 2400 kcal = 1 . 53 × 10 4 . size 12{ { {W} over {"2400"`"kcal"} } =1 "." "53" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 4} } "." } {}

Discussion

This ratio is a tiny fraction of what the person consumes, but it is typical. Very little of the energy released in the consumption of food is used to do work. Even when we “work” all day long, less than 10% of our food energy intake is used to do work and more than 90% is converted to thermal energy or stored as chemical energy in fat.

Section summary

  • Work is the transfer of energy by a force acting on an object as it is displaced.
  • The work W size 12{W} {} that a force F size 12{F} {} does on an object is the product of the magnitude F size 12{F} {} of the force, times the magnitude d size 12{d} {} of the displacement, times the cosine of the angle θ size 12{q} {} between them. In symbols,
    W = Fd cos θ . size 12{W= ital "Fd""cos"θ "." } {}
  • The SI unit for work and energy is the joule (J), where 1 J = 1 N m = 1 kg m 2 /s 2 size 12{1" J"=1" N" cdot m="1 kg" cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } "/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} .
  • The work done by a force is zero if the displacement is either zero or perpendicular to the force.
  • The work done is positive if the force and displacement have the same direction, and negative if they have opposite direction.

Conceptual questions

Give an example of something we think of as work in everyday circumstances that is not work in the scientific sense. Is energy transferred or changed in form in your example? If so, explain how this is accomplished without doing work.

Give an example of a situation in which there is a force and a displacement, but the force does no work. Explain why it does no work.

Describe a situation in which a force is exerted for a long time but does no work. Explain.

Problems&Exercises

How much work does a supermarket checkout attendant do on a can of soup he pushes 0.600 m horizontally with a force of 5.00 N? Express your answer in joules and kilocalories.

3 . 00  J = 7 . 17 × 10 4  kcal alignl { stack { size 12{3 "." "00"" J"={}} {} #size 12{7 "." "17" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 4} } " kcal"} {} } } {}

A 75.0-kg person climbs stairs, gaining 2.50 meters in height. Find the work done to accomplish this task.

(a) Calculate the work done on a 1500-kg elevator car by its cable to lift it 40.0 m at constant speed, assuming friction averages 100 N. (b) What is the work done on the lift by the gravitational force in this process? (c) What is the total work done on the lift?

(a) 5 . 92 × 10 5 J size 12{5 "." "92" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"} {}

(b) 5 . 88 × 10 5 J size 12{ - 5 "." "88" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " J"} {}

(c) The net force is zero.

Suppose a car travels 108 km at a speed of 30.0 m/s, and uses 2.0 gal of gasoline. Only 30% of the gasoline goes into useful work by the force that keeps the car moving at constant speed despite friction. (See [link] for the energy content of gasoline.) (a) What is the magnitude of the force exerted to keep the car moving at constant speed? (b) If the required force is directly proportional to speed, how many gallons will be used to drive 108 km at a speed of 28.0 m/s?

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20 . 0 º size 12{"20" "." 0°} {} with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate and on his body to get up the ramp.

A person is pushing a heavy crate up a ramp. The force vector F applied by the person is acting parallel to the ramp.
A man pushes a crate up a ramp.
3 . 14 × 10 3 J size 12{3 "." "14" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J"} {}

How much work is done by the boy pulling his sister 30.0 m in a wagon as shown in [link] ? Assume no friction acts on the wagon.

A child is sitting inside a wagon and being pulled by a boy with a force F at an angle thirty degrees upward from the horizontal. F is equal to fifty newtons, the displacement vector d is horizontal in the direction of motion. The magnitude of d is thirty meters.
The boy does work on the system of the wagon and the child when he pulls them as shown.

A shopper pushes a grocery cart 20.0 m at constant speed on level ground, against a 35.0 N frictional force. He pushes in a direction 25 . 0 º size 12{"25" "." 0°} {} below the horizontal. (a) What is the work done on the cart by friction? (b) What is the work done on the cart by the gravitational force? (c) What is the work done on the cart by the shopper? (d) Find the force the shopper exerts, using energy considerations. (e) What is the total work done on the cart?

(a) 700 J size 12{ - "700"`J} {}

(b) 0

(c) 700 J

(d) 38.6 N

(e) 0

Suppose the ski patrol lowers a rescue sled and victim, having a total mass of 90.0 kg, down a 60 . 0 º size 12{"60" "." 0°} {} slope at constant speed, as shown in [link] . The coefficient of friction between the sled and the snow is 0.100. (a) How much work is done by friction as the sled moves 30.0 m along the hill? (b) How much work is done by the rope on the sled in this distance? (c) What is the work done by the gravitational force on the sled? (d) What is the total work done?

A person on a rescue sled is shown being pulled up a slope. The slope makes an angle of sixty degrees from the horizontal. The weight of the person is shown by vector w acting vertically downward. The tension in the rope depicted by vector T is along the incline in the upward direction; vector f depicting frictional force is also acting in the same direction.
A rescue sled and victim are lowered down a steep slope.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
🤔.
Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
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Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
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what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
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AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Selected chapters of college physics for secondary 5. OpenStax CNX. Jun 19, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11535/1.1
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