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Damaraland mole-rats, however, are obligate outbreeders , meaning they will only breed with foreign mole-rats (Burland et al. 2002, Burland et al. 2004). Rickard and Bennett (1997) examined C. damarensis colonies, both in the lab and the wild, from which the dominant female was removed, either due to experimental removal or a natural death. They found that the colony remained reproductively quiescent, or stopped reproduction, until an unrelated male was introduced, then a former female worker would become the new breeder (Rickard and Bennett 1997). Their work provides a strong example of the incest avoidance Damaraland mole-rats have.

For a while, it was thought that incest avoidance in Damaraland mole-rats, unlike in naked mole-rats, was sufficient to maintain the reproductive skew. Reproductive suppression was therefore unnecessary. A recent study by Burland et al. (2004) has called these ideas into question, however. They found from samples taken from wild colonies that unrelated non-breeders of the opposite sex coexisted within colonies, providing opportunities for non-breeders to mate. In addition, they found offspring of queens with different fathers than the male breeders. They suggest that either males pass through the colonies or females can briefly leave (Burland et al. 2004). Either way, non-breeders come into contact with unrelated, potential mates, yet they do not mate. Due to this, Burland et al. (2004) believe some reproductive suppression occurs in C. damarensis as well which contributes to the reproductive skew. They do not know yet at what stage suppression is achieved, ovulation, copulation, or implantation (Burland et al. 2004). In order for any outbreeding to occur, however, some mole-rats must be willing to leave their natal nest and disperse.

Dispersal and morphologically separate castes

So far this paper has examined mainly one strategy for workers, the one in which they stay in the natal colony to maximize their indirect fitness, and how that strategy impacts reproductive suppression and incest avoidance. There is however, a second strategy in which the workers leave their natal colony and disperse, either to form a new colony or invade another, in the hopes of becoming a breeder and gaining direct reproduction (O’Riain et al. 1996). Dispersal for the naked mole-rat and the Damaraland mole-rat has high ecological constraints, though, because digging a new burrow for a new colony in the hard ground is difficult. In addition, a small starting colony experiences a greater risk of not finding food when foraging, and the risk of predation is high when leaving the colony. Spinks et al. (2000) performed a within-species comparison in Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus , or the common mole-rat, between mole-rats in an arid environment and those in a mesic environment ( [link] ). They found that the inclusive fitness for individuals is no longer maximized after reaching a certain colony size and there are greater fitness benefits in dispersing due to increased competition for resources like food. They also found, however, that the higher ecological constraints at the arid sites forced the individuals to remain in the colony longer due to the higher costs of dispersal (Spinks et al. 2000). These findings suggest that group living for H. glaber and C. damarensis was further encouraged by the large environmental constraints on dispersal.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
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how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
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I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
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I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
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oops. ignore that.
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I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
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Commplementary angles
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
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Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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