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A chart of rainfall depth by month.
Mole-rats burrow only after a rainfall of at least 15 mm over seven days when the moisture has reached burrow depth. Rainfall meeting these conditions at Dordabis, located in southern Africa, where Damaraland mole-rats are found, is shown here from January of 1988 through December of 1993, demonstrating the limited occasions for burrowing (Jarvis et al. 1998).

Reproductive suppression and incest avoidance

Both H. glaber and C. damarensis experience a great reproductive skew , meaning only a few members of each species ever achieve reproductive success. This is part of the definition of eusociality. For naked mole-rats, less than 1% of the population ever reproduces, and for Damaraland mole-rats less than 8% ever reproduce (Jarvis et al. 1994). This begs the question of how these two mole-rat species suppress reproduction. The current belief is that naked mole-rats and Damaraland mole-rats suppress their workers through different mechanisms.

Testing the aridity food distribution hypothesis

Using fractal dimension , which measures to what extent the burrow fills the area (Le Comber et al. 2002), Sichilima et al. (2008) investigated assumptions of the Aridity Food Distribution Hypothesis in Fukomys mechowii, a cooperatively breeding species of mole-rats. They examined burrow fractal dimension differences between the rainy season and the dry season, the relationship between fractal dimension and the number of colony members, and the relationship between fractal dimension and food mass in the burrow. They found that burrow fractal dimension increased with the number of colony members and during the rainy season, and that burrows with higher fractal dimensions had more food. This gives substantial support to the Aridity Food Distribution Hypothesis because it indicates that digging and burrowing is limited by energy demands during the arid season, one of the assumptions of the hypothesis. In addition, the risks of failing to find the patchily distributed food sources are reduced by greater numbers of foraging colony members (Sichilima et al. 2008). Similarly, Lovegrove and Wissel (1988) found foraging risks for solitary individuals in an environment with widely dispersed resources are high. Lovegrove also found, using math-based models, that the shift from solitary to group living is expected when there is a depression in the food density, which occurs when shifting from a mesic , or moderately moist, environment to an arid one (Lovegrove 1991), which falls in with the Aridity Food Distribution Hypothesis.

Naked mole-rats have no incest avoidance mechanism, unlike Damaraland mole-rats. Without those mechanisms there is no reason why workers should not breed with each other, yet they do not, suggesting that something must be preventing them. One possibility is that the queen shoves her workers (see [link] ), especially the larger ones who are more likely to breed eventually, to suppress reproduction (Jacobs and Jarvis 1996). Another is that some chemical or other social signal is given to suppress reproduction. Despite not knowing how exactly it is accomplished, it is known that when reproductively suppressed female mole-rats are removed from their colony and kept singularly their reproductive suppression is reversed (Faulkes and Abbott 1993, Clarke and Faulkes 1999). Since H. glaber do not avoid incest on their own, reproductive suppression is the sole method for maintaining the reproductive skew.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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