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In a similar fashion IC Technology has been a great leveler of human societies. All human beings are becoming a knowledge worker in one way or the other and the whole world is being rapidly transformed into a big Global Village where all new ideas or new technologies are available to one and all in the shortest time.

Moore’s Law prediction of increase in packing density from generation to generation with scaled down dimensions has enabled the integration of scaled up systems with greater functionalities and integration of bigger memory capacities in the same chip area.

Table 2..1.3.1. Clasification according to the scale of integration.

SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI
<30comp.RTL 30 to 100comp.Mag.Comp.Chip 100,000comp4004μP >1million comp.PentiumIV >100million comp.Corei7

Table 2.1.3.2. MOS Dimension Scaling.

MOS 1967 1997 1999 2001 2003 2006 2013
L(μm) 10 0.25 0.18 0.13 0.10 0.07 32
DRAM(Gb/cm 2 ) 64M 0.18 0.38 0.42 0.91 1.85 32
Junction Depth(x j )nm 1000 100 70 60 52 40 ?
Interconnection Pitch(nm) 2000 600 500 350 245 70 32
Technology micron Sub-micron technology Deep sub-micron Ultra-Deep-Sub-micron

Table 2.1.3.3.Processor scaling from 2006 to 2012.

Processor MOS count Year Manf. Process Area(mm 2 )
AMD K10 quad core2ML3 463M 2007 AMD 65nm 283
AMD K10 quad core6ML3 758M 2008 AMD 45nm 258
Corei7(quad) 731M 2008 Intel 45nm 263
6Core Opteron 2400 904M 2009 AMD 45nm 346
16Core Sparc T3 1B 2010 SUN/ORACLE 40nm 377
6Core Corei7 1.17B 2011 INTEL 32nm 216
QuadCore+GPU Corei7 1.4B 2012 INTEL 22nm 160
62Core Xeon Phi 5B 2012 INTEL 22nm ?

Table 2.1.3.4.GPU scaling from 1997 to 2012. [GPU – Graphical Processing Unit is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the building of images in a frame buffer intended for output to display]

Processor MOS count Year Manf. Process Area(mm 2 )
NV3 3.5M 1997 NVIDIA 350nm 90
Tahiti RV1070 4.3B 2011 AMD 28nm 365
GK110Kepler 7.08 2012 NVIDIA 28nm 561

Table 2.1.3.5.FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). It can be configured by the user according to his sysyem requirements. With increase in components the options for configurability is getting enhanced day by day.

FPGA MOS count Year Manufacturer Process
VIRTEX 70M 1997 Xilinx ?
VITEX II 350M 2000 Xilinx 130nm
Virtex 4 1B 2004 Xilinx 90nm
Stratia IV 2.5B 2008 Altera 40nm
Virtex 7 6.8B 2011 Xilinx 28nm

We have already seen in Section 2.1.2.6. that CMOS, because of its nanowatt power dissipation in stand-by mode, is becoming the technology of choice at the lecvel of ULSI. All applications are converging to CMOS process technology.

Theoretical proposition of CMOS as nano-watt logic family was made in1963 at International Solid-State-Circuits Conference(ISSCC-1963).

In 1968, RCA commercialized CMOS series of logic family known as CD4000 series. This was equivalent to TTL 74series.

Till 1970 the Industry Consensus was:

1.Mainstream device will remain NMOS.

2.BJT will be for Analog applications and for very high speed applications.

3.PMOS will be phased out.

4.CMOS will remain the process technology for Wrist Watches ICs.

This consensus was driven by the economic criteria. CMOS technology had a high cost factor. But in 1978, Hitachi pioneered a more economic way of fabricating CMOS products based on the invention of twin well CMOS by Y.Sakai and T.Masuchari then at Hitachi Center for Research Lab. In 1978, Hitachi marketed 4kSRAM based onCMOS which outperformed Intel’s equivalent 4kSRAM based on NMOS technology.

Questions & Answers

a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
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y=10×
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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