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  • Use digital formats for texts and supplemental materials
  • Insure access to print materials for use with technology (assistive technology such as screen readers)
  • Offer visual and auditory approaches to retrieve course content
  • Highlight key concepts and terms
  • Provide examples for each concept
  • Use ALT (alternative text) tags for images on web pages

Tolerance for Error. Universal design for instruction is perhaps above all else an inclusive approach that embraces, welcomes and encourages diverse student needs. This principle calls for attitudes and actions that demonstrate respect for students as adults, contributing to the learning of all. Questions and comments are encouraged and individual needs are respected. In all likelihood, all instructors believe this is a worthy goal. Taking specific steps within a course can however call for subtle adjustments. Selected strategies include:

  • Offer online practice exercises
  • Involve students in self and peer assessment
  • Monitor student progress
  • Comment and provide detailed feedback on assignments
  • Offer opportunities to provide drafts and resubmission of assignments
  • Develop study guides
  • Provide grading rubrics for all assignments
  • Offer examples of exemplary assignments
  • Suspend grammar, spelling and punctuation requirements for online discussions to promote participation
  • Use point based grading to allow self monitoring and as an incentive

Low physical effort. Universal design for instruction recognizes that students will be of a wide range of ages, backgrounds, physical characteristics and personal circumstances. This principle calls for considering the physical effort required to complete the course and systematically eliminating -- or at least adjusting -- anything that is unnecessary. The learning should be about the material not the physical place called "class". Selected strategies include:

  • Use computer based media for testing and written assignments
  • Provide reading material in digital form
  • Encourage students to use assistive technology for disability accommodations
  • Check for understanding and monitor progress

Size and Space of Approach. Learning space accommodates student and methods considering approach, reach, manipulations and use based on student physical, mobility and communication needs.

Selected strategies include:

  • Consider physical and attention requirements of assignments
  • Plan for access to materials, equipment, and media
  • Support the use of assistive technologies for access to learning materials
  • Use computer technology including camera and microphones as needed
  • Insure student has access to accommodations for physical access
  • Monitor pace and transition to new units

Community of Learners. Interaction among students and faculty promotes a positive learning environment which can be a challenge when learners are working in isolated settings. There are a variety of strategies to promote contact in distance environments. Selected strategies include:

  • Ask students to introduce themselves, share relevant experience and respond to one another
  • Form small groups for study or collaborative group work selected by students themselves
  • Establish ground rules for interactions
  • Value peer interaction and communication
  • Rotate group member roles (facilitator, note taking) during group sessions
  • Create rubric for responding to classmates’ discussion forums
  • Offer access to office hours and individual meetings
  • Offer learners opportunities to participate in social networking groups or online discussions
  • Set up email, chats, blogs and wikis
  • Structure activities so students progress through the course at the same rate
  • Invite previous students to participate as guest lecturers

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea handbook of online instruction and programs in education leadership. OpenStax CNX. Mar 06, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11375/1.24
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