# 4.6 Exponential and logarithmic equations  (Page 3/8)

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Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{2}^{x}={3}^{x+1}.$

$x=\frac{\mathrm{ln}3}{\mathrm{ln}\left(2}{3}\right)}$

Is there any way to solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{2}^{x}={3}^{x}?$

Yes. The solution is $0.$

## Equations containing e

One common type of exponential equations are those with base $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ This constant occurs again and again in nature, in mathematics, in science, in engineering, and in finance. When we have an equation with a base $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}e\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ on either side, we can use the natural logarithm    to solve it.

Given an equation of the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=A{e}^{kt}\text{,}$ solve for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}t.$

1. Divide both sides of the equation by $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A.$
2. Apply the natural logarithm of both sides of the equation.
3. Divide both sides of the equation by $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k.$

## Solve an equation of the form y = Ae kt

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}100=20{e}^{2t}.$

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3{e}^{0.5t}=11.$

$t=2\mathrm{ln}\left(\frac{11}{3}\right)\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ or $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\mathrm{ln}{\left(\frac{11}{3}\right)}^{2}$

Does every equation of the form $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y=A{e}^{kt}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ have a solution?

No. There is a solution when $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}k\ne 0,$ and when $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ and $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}A\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ are either both 0 or neither 0, and they have the same sign. An example of an equation with this form that has no solution is $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}2=-3{e}^{t}.$

## Solving an equation that can be simplified to the form y = Ae kt

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}4{e}^{2x}+5=12.$

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}3+{e}^{2t}=7{e}^{2t}.$

$t=\mathrm{ln}\left(\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\right)=-\frac{1}{2}\mathrm{ln}\left(2\right)$

## Extraneous solutions

Sometimes the methods used to solve an equation introduce an extraneous solution    , which is a solution that is correct algebraically but does not satisfy the conditions of the original equation. One such situation arises in solving when the logarithm is taken on both sides of the equation. In such cases, remember that the argument of the logarithm must be positive. If the number we are evaluating in a logarithm function is negative, there is no output.

## Solving exponential functions in quadratic form

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{e}^{2x}-{e}^{x}=56.$

Solve $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{e}^{2x}={e}^{x}+2.$

$x=\mathrm{ln}2$

Does every logarithmic equation have a solution?

No. Keep in mind that we can only apply the logarithm to a positive number. Always check for extraneous solutions.

## Using the definition of a logarithm to solve logarithmic equations

We have already seen that every logarithmic equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{b}\left(x\right)=y\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ is equivalent to the exponential equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{b}^{y}=x.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ We can use this fact, along with the rules of logarithms, to solve logarithmic equations where the argument is an algebraic expression.

For example, consider the equation $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}{\mathrm{log}}_{2}\left(2\right)+{\mathrm{log}}_{2}\left(3x-5\right)=3.\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$ To solve this equation, we can use rules of logarithms to rewrite the left side in compact form and then apply the definition of logs to solve for $\text{\hspace{0.17em}}x:$

The average annual population increase of a pack of wolves is 25.
how do you find the period of a sine graph
Period =2π if there is a coefficient (b), just divide the coefficient by 2π to get the new period
Am
if not then how would I find it from a graph
Imani
by looking at the graph, find the distance between two consecutive maximum points (the highest points of the wave). so if the top of one wave is at point A (1,2) and the next top of the wave is at point B (6,2), then the period is 5, the difference of the x-coordinates.
Am
you could also do it with two consecutive minimum points or x-intercepts
Am
I will try that thank u
Imani
Case of Equilateral Hyperbola
ok
Zander
ok
Shella
f(x)=4x+2, find f(3)
Benetta
f(3)=4(3)+2 f(3)=14
lamoussa
14
Vedant
pre calc teacher: "Plug in Plug in...smell's good" f(x)=14
Devante
8x=40
Chris
Explain why log a x is not defined for a < 0
the sum of any two linear polynomial is what
Momo
how can are find the domain and range of a relations
the range is twice of the natural number which is the domain
Morolake
A cell phone company offers two plans for minutes. Plan A: $15 per month and$2 for every 300 texts. Plan B: $25 per month and$0.50 for every 100 texts. How many texts would you need to send per month for plan B to save you money?
6000
Robert
more than 6000
Robert
can I see the picture
How would you find if a radical function is one to one?
how to understand calculus?
with doing calculus
SLIMANE
Thanks po.
Jenica
Hey I am new to precalculus, and wanted clarification please on what sine is as I am floored by the terms in this app? I don't mean to sound stupid but I have only completed up to college algebra.
I don't know if you are looking for a deeper answer or not, but the sine of an angle in a right triangle is the length of the opposite side to the angle in question divided by the length of the hypotenuse of said triangle.
Marco
can you give me sir tips to quickly understand precalculus. Im new too in that topic. Thanks
Jenica
if you remember sine, cosine, and tangent from geometry, all the relationships are the same but they use x y and r instead (x is adjacent, y is opposite, and r is hypotenuse).
Natalie
it is better to use unit circle than triangle .triangle is only used for acute angles but you can begin with. Download any application named"unit circle" you find in it all you need. unit circle is a circle centred at origine (0;0) with radius r= 1.
SLIMANE
What is domain
johnphilip
the standard equation of the ellipse that has vertices (0,-4)&(0,4) and foci (0, -15)&(0,15) it's standard equation is x^2 + y^2/16 =1 tell my why is it only x^2? why is there no a^2?
what is foci?
This term is plural for a focus, it is used for conic sections. For more detail or other math questions. I recommend researching on "Khan academy" or watching "The Organic Chemistry Tutor" YouTube channel.
Chris
how to determine the vertex,focus,directrix and axis of symmetry of the parabola by equations