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Write the following exponential equations in logarithmic form.

  1. 3 2 = 9
  2. 5 3 = 125
  3. 2 1 = 1 2
  1. 3 2 = 9 is equivalent to log 3 ( 9 ) = 2
  2. 5 3 = 125 is equivalent to log 5 ( 125 ) = 3
  3. 2 1 = 1 2 is equivalent to log 2 ( 1 2 ) = 1

Evaluating logarithms

Knowing the squares, cubes, and roots of numbers allows us to evaluate many logarithms mentally. For example, consider log 2 8. We ask, “To what exponent must 2 be raised in order to get 8?” Because we already know 2 3 = 8 , it follows that log 2 8 = 3.

Now consider solving log 7 49 and log 3 27 mentally.

  • We ask, “To what exponent must 7 be raised in order to get 49?” We know 7 2 = 49. Therefore, log 7 49 = 2
  • We ask, “To what exponent must 3 be raised in order to get 27?” We know 3 3 = 27. Therefore, log 3 27 = 3

Even some seemingly more complicated logarithms can be evaluated without a calculator. For example, let’s evaluate log 2 3 4 9 mentally.

  • We ask, “To what exponent must 2 3 be raised in order to get 4 9 ? ” We know 2 2 = 4 and 3 2 = 9 , so ( 2 3 ) 2 = 4 9 . Therefore, log 2 3 ( 4 9 ) = 2.

Given a logarithm of the form y = log b ( x ) , evaluate it mentally.

  1. Rewrite the argument x as a power of b : b y = x .
  2. Use previous knowledge of powers of b identify y by asking, “To what exponent should b be raised in order to get x ?

Solving logarithms mentally

Solve y = log 4 ( 64 ) without using a calculator.

First we rewrite the logarithm in exponential form: 4 y = 64. Next, we ask, “To what exponent must 4 be raised in order to get 64?”

We know

4 3 = 64

Therefore,

log ( 64 ) 4 = 3

Solve y = log 121 ( 11 ) without using a calculator.

log 121 ( 11 ) = 1 2 (recalling that 121 = ( 121 ) 1 2 = 11 )

Evaluating the logarithm of a reciprocal

Evaluate y = log 3 ( 1 27 ) without using a calculator.

First we rewrite the logarithm in exponential form: 3 y = 1 27 . Next, we ask, “To what exponent must 3 be raised in order to get 1 27 ?

We know 3 3 = 27 , but what must we do to get the reciprocal, 1 27 ? Recall from working with exponents that b a = 1 b a . We use this information to write

3 3 = 1 3 3 = 1 27

Therefore, log 3 ( 1 27 ) = 3.

Evaluate y = log 2 ( 1 32 ) without using a calculator.

log 2 ( 1 32 ) = 5

Using common logarithms

Sometimes we may see a logarithm written without a base. In this case, we assume that the base is 10. In other words, the expression log ( x ) means log 10 ( x ) . We call a base-10 logarithm a common logarithm . Common logarithms are used to measure the Richter Scale mentioned at the beginning of the section. Scales for measuring the brightness of stars and the pH of acids and bases also use common logarithms.

Definition of the common logarithm

A common logarithm    is a logarithm with base 10. We write log 10 ( x ) simply as log ( x ) . The common logarithm of a positive number x satisfies the following definition.

For x > 0 ,

y = log ( x )  is equivalent to  10 y = x

We read log ( x ) as, “the logarithm with base 10 of x ” or “log base 10 of x .

The logarithm y is the exponent to which 10 must be raised to get x .

Given a common logarithm of the form y = log ( x ) , evaluate it mentally.

  1. Rewrite the argument x as a power of 10 : 10 y = x .
  2. Use previous knowledge of powers of 10 to identify y by asking, “To what exponent must 10 be raised in order to get x ?

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
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Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
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Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
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Cied
types of nano material
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I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
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many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
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what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
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Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Selected topics in algebra. OpenStax CNX. Sep 02, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11877/1.2
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