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Goes over the implementation of our project.

Overall design

Layout of our design

This is an image of our actual implementation of this project. As you can see, the BeagleBone Black on the left is not attached to any supporting computer. We have the data stored directly on the board, and have 5 volts coming in to power it from a power outlet. This power lets the BeagleBone Black perform to the best of its capabilities when generating its bit stream. So 8 bits of digital output streams leave the general purpose I/O and enter the R/2R ladder. The system takes in these 8 digital outputs and generates a voltage that is the weighted sum of each bit. The signal continues through the design, and into the RC low pass filter where the high frequency copies are filtered out. Finally, the signal goes through the audio jack, into speakers, where it gets amplified and played as sound. Also not that we incorporated input buttons into our design for an educational, live demonstration of the process.

Full digital signal

In order to construct the full digital signal that is outputted by the BeagleBone Black, first we had to store the original digital data. We took audio files, turned them into a RAW format where they are unsigned bits so that they are easily handled. The BeagleBone Black outputs 8 new bits 44,100 times per second. These 8 output bits are changed to a 0 or a 1 based upon which audio file we read. As covered earlier, this yields 256 total voltage levels of output.

The program we wrote outputs the digital realization of several types of functions as well as 8 bit unsigned audio files to select pins on the BeagleBone Black. It is controlled by polling 5 input pins connected to tactile switches that cycle function, frequency (if applicable) and play/stop. This program relies on the Beagle Bone Black GPIO library.

First in our code, we want to establish pins, functions and songs.


#define PI 3.14159265 #define PORT 8#define PORT2 9 //output pins#define PIN0 19 //least significant bit #define PIN1 17#define PIN2 16 #define PIN3 15#define PIN4 14 #define PIN5 13#define PIN6 12 #define PIN7 11 //most significant bit//input pins #define PIN8 15 //play/stop button pin#define PIN9 12 //increase frequency pin #define PIN10 11 //decrease frequency pin#define PIN11 14 //next function pin #define PIN12 13 //last function pin#define NUMFUNCTIONS 5 //used to check if function increment should roll over #define SONG0 "Beethoven5.raw" //define the audio file names#define SONG1 "TomSawyer.raw" #define SONG2 "HarderBetterFaster.raw"

Now, we want to establish core functions for both the conversion process and the live educational demonstration.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Elec 301 projects fall 2014. OpenStax CNX. Jan 09, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11734/1.2
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