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The essentially empty Faroes Islands were settled by Vikings, thus actually extending Europe. (Ref. 301 )

In 809 Vikings captured a member of the papal mission accompanying Eardwulf, King of Northumbria, back to England. The Vikings raided usually in small bands and were identified by their leaders, such as the armies of Olaf, Sven or Knut, rather than as Norwegians, Danes, etc., although the English called them all "Danes". Actually Norwegians attacked the north and west British Isles while Danes assaulted the southern North Sea and channel coasts. The first attacks were small, involving 3 to 15 ships. Later, when 60 or more ships were involved they probably came from new bases, such as in the Hebrides. In the years after 866 many raiding Scandinavians, faced with better defences on the continent and finding little left to plunder, turned again to England. In 865 they took East Anglia and in 866, taking advantage of a local civil war in Northumbria, they conquered York. Their army, led by several kings, then took eastern Mercia but was stopped by Alfred at Wessex. The Viking leader, Guthrum, then retired to rule East Anglia. (Ref. 301 )

Forward to Europe: A.D. 901 to 1000

The first Viking settlements in Ireland, including Dublin, were in 841. They got control of all the islands around Ireland and then made inland raids from those bases. After 847 the Irish began to win some victories and drove them out temporarily. After 850 there were only 5 attacks on churches in the remainder of the century. There were four possible factors in that situation: (1) The Viking bases were susceptible to counter-attack; (2) some churches paid tribute; (3) Frankia offered better opportunities to accumulate wealth; and (4) the Danes first hit Ireland in 851 and there followed some violent conflicts between them and the Norwegians, so that there was little energy left for local devastation. (Ref. 301 )

Regarding the slaves, we should note that many of them were Christians. There were several centers for long distance trade - Kaupang in Vestfold, Norway, Hedeby in Denmark, Birka in Sweden and Trusco and Straraja Ladoga as Swedish centers in Russia. "Cogs" were cargo boats, developed perhaps in this century and they had the characteristic Viking profile, with a sharp angle between the keel and the stem. (Ref. 301 )

Ottar's North Cape trip was primarily a search for walrus ivory and hides and to survey the land. He encountered the Lapps who gave him much in the way of tribute, including 600 tame reindeer, skins, feathers, whale-bone and ship ropes from whale and seal hides. (Ref. 301 )

Sweden probably had several kings at this time. One was surely King Olef, but his power was limited and subject to two assemblies in Birka. Kings were military leaders. In 829 once such king asked the German emperor to send a preacher to Birka. In their attacks along the Baltic coast, the Swedes obtained large amounts of silver that was coming up from Transoxiana. (Ref. 301 )

The Danes of this period lived chiefly in southern Jutland. Frankish royal annals say that the Danish King Godfred removed merchants from Reric, an unidentified Slav territory, to his own lands. This was perhaps part of a fortification program which he built along the River Eider. The early Danish and Norwegian historians have much conflict in their writings of the early Danish political and military affairs and one must be somewhat dubious of all. The Danish historian, Sven Aggesen, makes a great deal of the activities of Queen Thyri, even stating that she conned the German emperor into paying her a vast sum and giving her credit for having the Danevirke built. We have noted previously, however, that this wall was constructed in the preceding century. (Ref. 301 )

The Vikings were offered spacious opportunities in Iceland and about 870 they began to arrive in a steady stream, both from Scandinavia proper and from their bases in the British Isles. (Ref. 301 )

The Bulgars (also Bulghars) along the middle Volga acted as intermediaries for trade with the various Finnish tribes, such as the "Ves", living to the east of Lake Onega, and the Scandinavian "Rus" around Kiev. The Karelians also collected furs in the Kola peninsula and even encountered the Norwegian Ottar there. There is little doubt that Scandinavians known as "Rus" established themselves in Russia in the first half of this 9th century, originally with the object of gathering arctic furs and slaves to sell down along the Volga. By the middle of the century Rurik controlled several bases in northern Russia at Izborsk, Beloozero and Novgorod. Then one group, led by Askold and Dir, went south and seized Kiev. They possibly attacked Constantinople in 860. Rurik died about 880 and was succeeded by a kinsman, Oleg, who overthrew Askold and Dir and became Prince of Kiev. He forced adjacent Slavonic tribes to pay tribute. (Ref. 301 )

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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Commplementary angles
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or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
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Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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