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The essentially empty Faroes Islands were settled by Vikings, thus actually extending Europe. (Ref. 301 )

In 809 Vikings captured a member of the papal mission accompanying Eardwulf, King of Northumbria, back to England. The Vikings raided usually in small bands and were identified by their leaders, such as the armies of Olaf, Sven or Knut, rather than as Norwegians, Danes, etc., although the English called them all "Danes". Actually Norwegians attacked the north and west British Isles while Danes assaulted the southern North Sea and channel coasts. The first attacks were small, involving 3 to 15 ships. Later, when 60 or more ships were involved they probably came from new bases, such as in the Hebrides. In the years after 866 many raiding Scandinavians, faced with better defences on the continent and finding little left to plunder, turned again to England. In 865 they took East Anglia and in 866, taking advantage of a local civil war in Northumbria, they conquered York. Their army, led by several kings, then took eastern Mercia but was stopped by Alfred at Wessex. The Viking leader, Guthrum, then retired to rule East Anglia. (Ref. 301 )

Forward to Europe: A.D. 901 to 1000

The first Viking settlements in Ireland, including Dublin, were in 841. They got control of all the islands around Ireland and then made inland raids from those bases. After 847 the Irish began to win some victories and drove them out temporarily. After 850 there were only 5 attacks on churches in the remainder of the century. There were four possible factors in that situation: (1) The Viking bases were susceptible to counter-attack; (2) some churches paid tribute; (3) Frankia offered better opportunities to accumulate wealth; and (4) the Danes first hit Ireland in 851 and there followed some violent conflicts between them and the Norwegians, so that there was little energy left for local devastation. (Ref. 301 )

Regarding the slaves, we should note that many of them were Christians. There were several centers for long distance trade - Kaupang in Vestfold, Norway, Hedeby in Denmark, Birka in Sweden and Trusco and Straraja Ladoga as Swedish centers in Russia. "Cogs" were cargo boats, developed perhaps in this century and they had the characteristic Viking profile, with a sharp angle between the keel and the stem. (Ref. 301 )

Ottar's North Cape trip was primarily a search for walrus ivory and hides and to survey the land. He encountered the Lapps who gave him much in the way of tribute, including 600 tame reindeer, skins, feathers, whale-bone and ship ropes from whale and seal hides. (Ref. 301 )

Sweden probably had several kings at this time. One was surely King Olef, but his power was limited and subject to two assemblies in Birka. Kings were military leaders. In 829 once such king asked the German emperor to send a preacher to Birka. In their attacks along the Baltic coast, the Swedes obtained large amounts of silver that was coming up from Transoxiana. (Ref. 301 )

The Danes of this period lived chiefly in southern Jutland. Frankish royal annals say that the Danish King Godfred removed merchants from Reric, an unidentified Slav territory, to his own lands. This was perhaps part of a fortification program which he built along the River Eider. The early Danish and Norwegian historians have much conflict in their writings of the early Danish political and military affairs and one must be somewhat dubious of all. The Danish historian, Sven Aggesen, makes a great deal of the activities of Queen Thyri, even stating that she conned the German emperor into paying her a vast sum and giving her credit for having the Danevirke built. We have noted previously, however, that this wall was constructed in the preceding century. (Ref. 301 )

The Vikings were offered spacious opportunities in Iceland and about 870 they began to arrive in a steady stream, both from Scandinavia proper and from their bases in the British Isles. (Ref. 301 )

The Bulgars (also Bulghars) along the middle Volga acted as intermediaries for trade with the various Finnish tribes, such as the "Ves", living to the east of Lake Onega, and the Scandinavian "Rus" around Kiev. The Karelians also collected furs in the Kola peninsula and even encountered the Norwegian Ottar there. There is little doubt that Scandinavians known as "Rus" established themselves in Russia in the first half of this 9th century, originally with the object of gathering arctic furs and slaves to sell down along the Volga. By the middle of the century Rurik controlled several bases in northern Russia at Izborsk, Beloozero and Novgorod. Then one group, led by Askold and Dir, went south and seized Kiev. They possibly attacked Constantinople in 860. Rurik died about 880 and was succeeded by a kinsman, Oleg, who overthrew Askold and Dir and became Prince of Kiev. He forced adjacent Slavonic tribes to pay tribute. (Ref. 301 )

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
salma
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
Abhi
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
hmm
Abhi
is it a question of log
Abhi
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Abhi
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
salma
But this is not salma it's Faiza live in lousvile Ky I garbage this so I am going collage with JCTC that the of the collage thank you my friends
salma
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
hii
Uday
hi
salma
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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