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The Viking raids became a terrifying experience to the people of Scotland, as in other parts of Britain. They called those from Denmark the "Black Gentiles" and those from Norway the "White Gentiles". Between 795 and 806 lona was wasted three times and the loot taken was extensive. But the Norse made settlements, too. Norwegian jarls ruled the Shetlands, Orkneys and the Caithness. Ketil, sent by Norwegian King Harold Fairhair to the Hebrides, established himself as king. In the hills of Galloway, on the north coast of the Solway Firth, the Norse intermarried with the earlier settlers, creating a fiery and quarrelsome people called the Gallgaels. By the end of the century Kenneth Mac Alpin and his successors, a brother, two sons and two grandchildren had died and were apparently buried on Iona. (Ref. 170 )


The Vikings raided Ireland and established some temporary Norse kingdoms, including Cork and Dublin, the latter established in 841 by Olaf, a Norwegian prince. This kingdom lasted some three hundred years and served as a base for further Norse raids. In addition to Cork and Dublin - Wicklow, Arklow and Wexford were all Viking towns. Irish monasteries were especially hard hit and destroyed, probably because these were of ten the only real communities and center of food storage. Actually the Irish themselves at- tacked more monasteries than the Vikings ever did. Conmacnoise, on the upper Shannon, was hit by native Irish at least twenty-seven times to the Vikings' eight. Three times it was sacked by Feidlimid mac Crimthainn, abbot-king of Munster, who plundered many of Ireland's greatest monasteries. Knowth, on the east side of the present Irish Republic, on the River Boyne, had become in recent centuries a site of importance, apparently as the royal residence of the Gaelic kings of Northern Brege. (Ref. 8 , 194 , 88 ) Additional Notes


In Wales, pirate attacks occurred from Normandy until Rhodri the Great drove them off and gave the country a vigorous dynasty.


How did these Viking people suddenly leap onto the stage of European history to dominate it for some three centuries, when previous to about 800, they had been a rather obscure, somewhat barbaric group? The reasons for their domination at this time are probably several but, at least included, is the fact that these people had developed a mastery of ship-building and had nautical skills. In addition, a population explosion had occurred in their Scandinavian homelands as a result of warmer temperatures than usual (Little Climatic Optimum) with a resulting abundant food supply. Some have speculated that the raids, in part, were in retaliation for Charlemagne's and other Christians' persecution (Ref. 79 ) At home in Scandinavia there were no striking changes, barring the population increase, to herald the Viking era. The social structure conformed to a norm characteristic of Europe. At the bottom of the scale was the slave (proel

This date is from Heyerdahl (Ref. 95 ), but McEvedy (Ref. 137 ) gives the date A.D. 885
), who might be anyone from a bankrupt local to a prisoner of war. The son of a slave was also a slave. Next in line were the free peasants (karls), not usually entirely free, but doing service to a proprietor.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
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how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
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okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
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what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
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how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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I'm interested in Nanotube
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can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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