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Europe

Back to Europe: A.D. 501 to 600

Slavery continued in Europe throughout these "Dark Ages" despite the Christian Church, but in this century, when Arabs gained control of the Mediterranean, it was difficult for Europeans to get slaves from the Levant. Most were then obtained from the Slavic regions. (Ref. 213 )

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

The century began with these islands all a part of the Byzantine Empire but one by one the Arabs began to take them over in the latter decades. Cyprus, with its copper mines, fell to the Moslems in 648 and Rhodes in 654. (Ref. 222 )

Greece

Greece was now heavily infiltrated with Slavic peoples and although nominally under the eastern Roman Empire, only some of the coastal cities were truly Byzantine.

Upper balkans

The Bulgars, whose original Kaganate was in the middle Volga far north of the Caspian Sea, had migrated in the previous century to the Danube region. This group, including one branch of the Utigurs, had founded a Bulgarian kingdom in ancient Moesia, enslaving the Slavs already there but they adopted the Slavs' language and customs and in time intermarried with them. They began to take over more and more Balkan territory from Byzantium by 679 and were recognized as a separate country in 681 when their first king, Isperikh, was crowned at the capital, Pliska. These were the so-called "White" or "Western Bulgars", originally related to the Huns. (Ref. 180 , 8 )

Farther west, the Srbi (Serbs) settled in part of the old Pannonia and Chrobati (Croats) settled in Illyricum, forming eventually the country of Serbia. By 650 the Slavs \ constituted the majority of the people in the Balkans. Avar horsemen, operating out of Hungary, spread havoc intermittently through the area and repeatedly appeared under the walls of Constantinople.

Italy

The Lombards regained control of the northern plain of Italy, where the Byzantines had driven a wedge, between A.D. 601 and 605, establishing a progressive state under Duke Agilulf, who was actually a Thuringian. The Lombards maintained intermittent relation- ships with Rome and eventually became Catholics. Venice continued as an independent realm, allegedly having been built up from fishing villages settled by fugitives from the Huns, on some 60 marshy islands. (Ref. 222 ) Rome continued as a part of the Byzantine Christian Empire although it was no longer its chief city. The remainder of Italy was a patchwork of independent cities or duchies, such as the Duchy of Spoleto and the Duchy of Benevento. (Ref. 137 )

Central europe

Germany

The Germanic and Slavic peoples had little disease and no superimposed imperial macroparasitism

McNeill's terminology
such as the Mediterranean urban populations imposed on the peasantries there, and so they had tremendous population growths, with the Slavs colonizing the Balkan peninsula, as we have noted above, and the Germanic tribes swarming to the Rhine and finally far beyond to Britain. (Ref. 140 )

Even in the previous century the Frankish kings of Germany had to reward their followers and the church by granting away their own land and revenues. By the middle of this 7th century two families had emerged as the principal agents of the kings for these transactions. One of these was from Austrasia, the traditional eastern Frankish land, and the other was from Neustria, the new lands north of the Loire. By 687 Pepin, of Heerstal (near Aachen) of the Austrasian family, had won out, thereafter dominating the Frankish kingdoms. (Ref. 8 ) At that time several basic or stem duchies became prominent, including Bavaria (named from the Baiuoaril branch of the Marcomanni), Swabia (bordering Switzerland), Thuringia, Saxony, Franconia and Frisia.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
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Tamia
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Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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