Null Hypothesis
H
_{0} : The population correlation coefficient IS NOT significantly different from zero. There IS NOT a significant linear relationship(correlation) between
x and
y in the population.
Alternate Hypothesis
H
_{a} : The population correlation coefficient IS significantly DIFFERENT FROM zero. There IS A SIGNIFICANT LINEAR RELATIONSHIP (correlation) between
x and
y in the population.
Drawing a conclusion:
There are two methods of making the decision. The two methods are equivalent and give the same result.
Method 1: Using the
p -value
Method 2: Using a table of critical values
In this chapter of this textbook, we will always use a significance level of 5%,
α = 0.05
Note
Using the
p -value method, you could choose any appropriate significance level you want; you are not limited to using
α = 0.05. But the table of critical values provided in this textbook assumes that we are using a significance level of 5%,
α = 0.05. (If we wanted to use a different significance level than 5% with the critical value method, we would need different tables of critical values that are not provided in this textbook.)
Method 1: using a
p -value to make a decision
To calculate the
p -value using LinRegTTEST:
On the LinRegTTEST input screen, on the line prompt for
β or
ρ , highlight "
≠ 0 "
The output screen shows the p-value on the line that reads "p =".
(Most computer statistical software can calculate the
p -value.)
If the
p -value is less than the significance level (
α = 0.05):
Decision: Reject the null hypothesis.
Conclusion: "There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between
x and
y because the correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero."
If the
p -value is not less than the significance level (
α = 0.05)
Decision: DO NOT REJECT the null hypothesis.
Conclusion: "There is insufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between
x and
y because the correlation coefficient is NOT significantly different from zero."
Calculation notes:
You will use technology to calculate the
p -value. The following describes the calculations to compute the test statistics and the
p -value:
The
p -value is calculated using a
t -distribution with
n - 2 degrees of freedom.
The formula for the test statistic is
$t=\frac{r\sqrt{n-2}}{\sqrt{1-{r}^{2}}}$ . The value of the test statistic,
t , is shown in the computer or calculator output along with the
p -value. The test statistic
t has the same sign as the correlation coefficient
r .
The
p -value is the combined area in both tails.
An alternative way to calculate the
p -value
(p) given by LinRegTTest is the command 2*tcdf(abs(t),10^99, n-2) in 2nd DISTR.
The line of best fit is: ŷ = -173.51 + 4.83
x with
r = 0.6631 and there are
n = 11 data points.
Can the regression line be used for prediction?
Given a third exam score (
x value), can we
use the line to predict the final exam score (predicted
y value)?
H
_{0} :
ρ = 0
H
_{a} :
ρ ≠ 0
α = 0.05
The
p -value is 0.026 (from LinRegTTest on your calculator or from computer software).
The
p -value, 0.026, is less than the significance level of
α = 0.05.
Decision: Reject the Null Hypothesis
H
_{0}
Conclusion: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between the third exam score (
x ) and the final exam score (
y ) because the correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero.
Questions & Answers
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field .
1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc
2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc
3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc.
and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change .
maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.