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Grade 4

The origins of the main religions of the world

Module 15

More about judaism, islam and hinduism


Origin: Judaism originated in Canaan, the Promised Land (now largely corresponding to the present Israel), in approximately 2000 B.C. It is practised right across the world.
What do they believe? Followers of Judaism are known as Jews. They believe in one God, who revealed the Law to his people. Their symbol is the Star of David.
Name of Founder: ABRAHAM Abraham, the Hebrew patriarch, was born round about 2000 B.C. In Ur in the country now known as Iraq. He settled in Canaan after God had commanded him to do so.
Truths: RULES AND RITUALS The following are some of the traditions upheld in the Jewish way of life:
  • Baby boys are circumcised eight days after birth.
  • The Sabbath (Saturday) is the holy day of rest.
  • Eating pork and shellfish is forbidden.
  • A Jewish boy celebrates his Bar Mitzvah (as a fully responsible member of the Jewish community) when he is thirteen years old.
Key Points:
  • God created the world and controls history.
  • The Jews descended from the Hebrews.
  • The Jews are God's chosen people, “a light for the nations.”
Holy Scriptures: TENAKH The Jewish Holy Scripture is known as the Tenakh . It tells the history of the Jewish people. The most important part of it is the Torah , the five books of Moses. They contain the laws, among which are the Ten Commandments that God had revealed to Moses.

Sacred practices

Holy Days:
Name Event
Hanukkah Festival to celebrate the rededication of the temple
The Passover (Pesach) Festival to celebrate the deliverance from slavery in Egypt
Yom Kippur The day of atonement
Holy Words: Diaspora: The dispersion of the Jews Exodus: The Israelites' departure from Egypt Kaddish: An ancient Jewish prayer used in the synagogue The uncircumcised : Non-Jews Rabbi: Teacher and leader of a congregation Sinagogue: Place of worship Tefillah: Square prayer cases containing passages from the Torah and tied to the arm and forehead Holy Places: WESTERN WALLThis wall in Jerusalem is also known as the Wailing Wall. It is the only remaining wall of Herod's Temple, which was destroyed in 70 A.D. Jews nowadays visit it for prayer and to insert written prayers and requests into the crevices between the large blocks of stone with which it was constructed.


Origin: ISLAM originated in Mecca ( Makkah ) in what is now known as Saudi-Arabia, in approximately 600 A.D. It is practised the world over and has hundreds of thousands of followers in South Africa.
What do they believe? ISLAMIC FAITH is based on the belief in one God, Allah. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Their symbol is a star and the crescent moon.
Name of Founder: MOHAMMED Mohammed was the last and greatest of the 26 Islamic prophets. He was born in Mecca in 570 A.D. The shahadah (the daily declaration of faith) declares that Mohammed is Allah's messenger.
Truths: PILLARS OF ISLAM Muslims have to keep the following rules:
  • Shahadah : Allah is the only God and Mohammed is his messenger.
  • Salah : Pray five times daily.
  • Zakah : Give to charity.
  • Sawm : Keep the fast of Ramadan.
  • Hadj : Undertake the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime.
Key Points:
  • Muslims promise to be obedient to the will of Allah.
  • Islam is the faith that Allah has chosen for the human race.
  • Mohammed is Allah's most important messenger.
  • The word Islam is derived from the Arabic word Salaam and means “peace”.
Holy Scriptures: QUR'AN. In this holy book of Islam, Allah revealed to Mohammed how humankind had to live on earth. Muslims handle this book with great respect. They keep it in a clean place and wash themselves before handling it.
Sacred Practices: PRAYER. Muslims frequently pray together in groups. They kneel down on clean surfaces or on a cloth, which may be a woven carpet, mat of straw or even a handkerchief.
Holy Days:
Name Event
Mawlid al-Nabi The day of Mohammed's birth
Layl’at al-Qadr Qur'an revealed to Mohammed
Id al-Fitr Celebration of the end of Ramadan
Id al-Adha End of the pilgrimage to Mecca
Holy Words: Hadith: Tales about Mohammed Hadji: Someone who has undertaken the pilgrimage (Hajj) Hafiz: Title for a Muslim who has memorised the Qur'an Jihad: The striving to spread the Islamic way of life Masjid: Place of worship in an Arab country Mullah: A learned man Shari’ah: Islamic laws Holy Places: MECCA (MAKKAH)This city in Saudi-Arabia is the holiest place in the Muslim world. There is a block-like sanctuary in the city, the Kaaba, which is reputed to have been built by Abraham and Ishmael, almost 4 000 years ago. Muslims travel to Mecca to gather around the Kaaba each year, particularly during the month for pilgrimage.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11089/1.1
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