# 4.2 Binomial distribution  (Page 3/28)

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Approximately 70% of statistics students do their homework in time for it to be collected and graded. Each student does homework independently. In a statistics class of 50 students, what is the probability that at least 40 will do their homework on time? Students are selected randomly.

a. This is a binomial problem because there is only a success or a __________, there are a fixed number of trials, and the probability of a success is 0.70 for each trial.

a. failure

b. If we are interested in the number of students who do their homework on time, then how do we define X ?

b. X = the number of statistics students who do their homework on time

c. What values does x take on?

c. 0, 1, 2, …, 50

d. What is a "failure," in words?

d. Failure is defined as a student who does not complete his or her homework on time.

The probability of a success is p = 0.70. The number of trials is n = 50.

e. If p + q = 1, then what is q ?

e. q = 0.30

f. The words "at least" translate as what kind of inequality for the probability question P ( x ____ 40).

f. greater than or equal to (≥)
The probability question is P ( x ≥ 40).

## Try it

Sixty-five percent of people pass the state driver’s exam on the first try. A group of 50 individuals who have taken the driver’s exam is randomly selected. Give two reasons why this is a binomial problem.

This is a binomial problem because there is only a success or a failure, and there are a definite number of trials. The probability of a success stays the same for each trial.

## Try it

During the 2013 regular NBA season, DeAndre Jordan of the Los Angeles Clippers had the highest field goal completion rate in the league. DeAndre scored with 61.3% of his shots. Suppose you choose a random sample of 80 shots made by DeAndre during the 2013 season. Let X = the number of shots that scored points.

1. What is the probability distribution for X ?
2. Using the formulas, calculate the (i) mean and (ii) standard deviation of X .
3. Find the probability that DeAndre scored with 60 of these shots.
4. Find the probability that DeAndre scored with more than 50 of these shots.
1. X ~ B (80, 0.613)
1. Mean = np = 80(0.613) = 49.04
2. Standard Deviation = $\sqrt{npq}=\sqrt{80\left(0.613\right)\left(0.387\right)}\approx 4.3564$
2. P ( x = 60)= 0.0036
3. P ( x >50) = 1 – P ( x ≤ 50) = 1 – 0.6282 = 0.3718

## References

“Access to electricity (% of population),” The World Bank, 2013. Available online at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.ACCS.ZS?order=wbapi_data_value_2009%20wbapi_data_value%20wbapi_data_value-first&sort=asc (accessed May 15, 2015).

“Distance Education.” Wikipedia. Available online at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distance_education (accessed May 15, 2013).

“NBA Statistics – 2013,” ESPN NBA, 2013. Available online at http://espn.go.com/nba/statistics/_/seasontype/2 (accessed May 15, 2013).

Newport, Frank. “Americans Still Enjoy Saving Rather than Spending: Few demographic differences seen in these views other than by income,” GALLUP® Economy, 2013. Available online at http://www.gallup.com/poll/162368/americans-enjoy-saving-rather-spending.aspx (accessed May 15, 2013).

Pryor, John H., Linda DeAngelo, Laura Palucki Blake, Sylvia Hurtado, Serge Tran. The American Freshman: National Norms Fall 2011 . Los Angeles: Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, 2011. Also available online at http://heri.ucla.edu/PDFs/pubs/TFS/Norms/Monographs/TheAmericanFreshman2011.pdf (accessed May 15, 2013).

“The World FactBook,” Central Intelligence Agency. Available online at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/af.html (accessed May 15, 2013).

“What are the key statistics about pancreatic cancer?” American Cancer Society, 2013. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/pancreaticcancer/detailedguide/pancreatic-cancer-key-statistics (accessed May 15, 2013).

## Chapter review

A statistical experiment can be classified as a binomial experiment if the following conditions are met:

1. There are a fixed number of trials, n .
2. There are only two possible outcomes, called "success" and, "failure" for each trial. The letter p denotes the probability of a success on one trial and q denotes the probability of a failure on one trial.
3. The n trials are independent and are repeated using identical conditions.

The outcomes of a binomial experiment fit a binomial probability distribution. The random variable X = the number of successes obtained in the n independent trials. The mean of X can be calculated using the formula μ = np , and the standard deviation is given by the formula σ = .

The formula for the Binomial probability density function is

$P\left(x\right)=\frac{n!}{x!\left(n-x\right)!}·{p}^{x}{q}^{\left(n-x\right)}$

## Formula review

X ~ B ( n , p ) means that the discrete random variable X has a binomial probability distribution with n trials and probability of success p .

X = the number of successes in n independent trials

n = the number of independent trials

X takes on the values x = 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., n

p = the probability of a success for any trial

q = the probability of a failure for any trial

p + q = 1

q = 1 – p

The mean of X is μ = np . The standard deviation of X is σ = $\sqrt{npq}$ .

$P\left(x\right)=\frac{n!}{x!\left(n-x\right)!}·{p}^{x}{q}^{\left(n-x\right)}$

where P(X) is the probability of X successes in n trials when the probability of a success in ANY ONE TRIAL is p.

Use the following information to answer the next eight exercises: The Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA collected data from 203,967 incoming first-time, full-time freshmen from 270 four-year colleges and universities in the U.S. 71.3% of those students replied that, yes, they believe that same-sex couples should have the right to legal marital status. Suppose that you randomly pick eight first-time, full-time freshmen from the survey. You are interested in the number that believes that same sex-couples should have the right to legal marital status.

In words, define the random variable X .

X = the number that reply “yes”

X ~ _____(_____,_____)

What values does the random variable X take on?

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Construct the probability distribution function (PDF).

x P ( x )

On average ( μ ), how many would you expect to answer yes?

5.7

What is the standard deviation ( σ )?

What is the probability that at most five of the freshmen reply “yes”?

0.4151

What is the probability that at least two of the freshmen reply “yes”?

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