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SSPD_Chapter 2.2.1 and Chapter 2.2.2 give the Solid State Equivalent of Vacuum Devices and the Crystalline Structure of Silicon.

2.2.1.solid state equivalent of all the vacuum tube devices.

Vacuum Tube Devices Solid State Equivalent
Photo-multiplier Tube Photo-diode/Op/.Amp.
Ruby and Gas LASER PN Junction Diode LASER
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Flat Panel Display- LCD (Liquid Crystal Devices) and LED(Light-emitting Devices) version
T.V. Camera. Charge-Couple Device Camera.
Thyratron Thyristor or SCR(Silicon Contol Rectifier)
Vacuum Tube Triode and Pentode Bipolar Junction Transistor(BJT), MOSFET(Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor),JFET(Junction-FET)

2.2.2. crystalline structure of silicon

Silicon is a Group IV element with 4 electrons in its outermost orbit. Each Silicon atom is co-valently bond to 4 neighbouring Si atoms. In the process the octave is completed for all the Si stoms except those on the surface of the specimen. The surface has dangling bonds which need to be passivated. The crystalline structure of Silicon is called Diamond Lattice Structure.

Silicon has a lattice constant of ‘a’=5.43A° at 300K. It is two interpenetrating FCC(Face-Center-Cube) lattice with one sub-lattice displaced with respect to the other by quarter of the distance along the cross diagonal of the cube.

The whole diamond lattice cube is divided into 8 sub-cubes.Two sub-cubes in the upper half and two sub-cubes in the lower half contain the tetrahedral structure. The four sub-cubes are so arranged that the top view gives seamless continuity of co-valent sharing of the electrons with four neighbouring atoms as shown in Figure 2.2.4.

Tetrahedral structure shown in Figure 2.2.3. is repeadted throughout the lattice space as a consequence there are:

4 body atoms = 4 × 1 = 4 atoms

6 face atoms = 6 × ½ = 3 atoms.

8 corner atoms = 8 ×1/8 = 1 atoms

Hence there are 4+3+1= 8 atoms per unit cell.

Therefore atom number density = 8 / a 3 =8/(5.43A°) 3 = 5×10 22 atoms/cc.

Generally all crystalline solid material have a packing density of this order. This is the reason whuy in Copper each atom being univalent contributes 1 electron. Hence conducting electron concentration ‘n’ ~ 10 22 electrons/cc .

Weight Density = atom density×weight per atom.

Weight per atom = Weight of 1 gram-mole/Avogadro Number=A/A vog

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
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The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
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kinnecy Reply
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I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
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Commplementary angles
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
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a perfect square v²+2v+_
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algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
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rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
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Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
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Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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