<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
SSPD_Chapter 2.2.1 and Chapter 2.2.2 give the Solid State Equivalent of Vacuum Devices and the Crystalline Structure of Silicon.

2.2.1.solid state equivalent of all the vacuum tube devices.

Vacuum Tube Devices Solid State Equivalent
Photo-multiplier Tube Photo-diode/Op/.Amp.
Ruby and Gas LASER PN Junction Diode LASER
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope Flat Panel Display- LCD (Liquid Crystal Devices) and LED(Light-emitting Devices) version
T.V. Camera. Charge-Couple Device Camera.
Thyratron Thyristor or SCR(Silicon Contol Rectifier)
Vacuum Tube Triode and Pentode Bipolar Junction Transistor(BJT), MOSFET(Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor),JFET(Junction-FET)

2.2.2. crystalline structure of silicon

Silicon is a Group IV element with 4 electrons in its outermost orbit. Each Silicon atom is co-valently bond to 4 neighbouring Si atoms. In the process the octave is completed for all the Si stoms except those on the surface of the specimen. The surface has dangling bonds which need to be passivated. The crystalline structure of Silicon is called Diamond Lattice Structure.

Silicon has a lattice constant of ‘a’=5.43A° at 300K. It is two interpenetrating FCC(Face-Center-Cube) lattice with one sub-lattice displaced with respect to the other by quarter of the distance along the cross diagonal of the cube.

The whole diamond lattice cube is divided into 8 sub-cubes.Two sub-cubes in the upper half and two sub-cubes in the lower half contain the tetrahedral structure. The four sub-cubes are so arranged that the top view gives seamless continuity of co-valent sharing of the electrons with four neighbouring atoms as shown in Figure 2.2.4.

Tetrahedral structure shown in Figure 2.2.3. is repeadted throughout the lattice space as a consequence there are:

4 body atoms = 4 × 1 = 4 atoms

6 face atoms = 6 × ½ = 3 atoms.

8 corner atoms = 8 ×1/8 = 1 atoms

Hence there are 4+3+1= 8 atoms per unit cell.

Therefore atom number density = 8 / a 3 =8/(5.43A°) 3 = 5×10 22 atoms/cc.

Generally all crystalline solid material have a packing density of this order. This is the reason whuy in Copper each atom being univalent contributes 1 electron. Hence conducting electron concentration ‘n’ ~ 10 22 electrons/cc .

Weight Density = atom density×weight per atom.

Weight per atom = Weight of 1 gram-mole/Avogadro Number=A/A vog

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask