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ACCESS TO COURTS

  1. Everyone has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved by the application of law decided in a fair public hearing before a court or, where appropriate, another independent and impartial tribunal or forum.

ARRESTED, DETAINED AND ACCUSED PERSONS

Everyone who is arrested for allegedly committing an offence has the right –

  • to remain silent;
  • to be informed promptly –
    • of the right to remain silent; and
    • of the consequences of not remaining silent;
  • not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in evidence against that person;
  • to be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible, but not later than –
    • 48 hours after the arrest; or
    • the end of the first court day after the expiry of the 48 hours, if the 48 hours expire outside ordinary court hours or on a day which is not an ordinary court day;
  • at the first court appearance after being arrested, to be charged or to be informed of the reason for the detention to continue, or to be released; and
  • to be released from detention if the interests of justice permit, subject to reasonable conditions.
  • Everyone who is detained, including every sentenced prisoner, has the right –
    1. to be informed promptly of the reason for being detained;
    2. to choose, and to consult with, a legal practitioner, and to be informed of this right promptly;
    3. to have a legal practitioner assigned to the detained person by the state and at state expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly;
    4. to challenge the lawfulness of the detention in person before a court and, if the detention is unlawful, to be released;
    5. to conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity, including at least exercise and the provision, at state expense, of adequate accommodation, nutrition, reading material and medical treatment; and
    6. to communicate with, and be visited by, that person’s –
      1. spouse or partner;
      2. next of kin;
      3. chosen religious counsellor; and
      4. chosen medical practitioner.
  • Every accused person has a right to a fair trial, which includes the right –
    1. to be informed of the charge with sufficient detail to answer it;
    2. to have adequate time and facilities to prepare a defence;
    3. to a public trial before an ordinary court;
    4. to have their trial begin and conclude without unreasonable delay;
    5. to be present when being tried;
    6. to choose, and be represented by a legal practitioner, and to be informed of this right promptly;
    7. to have a legal practitioner assigned to the accused person by the state and at state expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly.
    8. to have a legal practitioner assigned to the accused person by the state and at state expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly;
    9. to be presumed innocent, to remain silent, and not to testify during the proceedings;
    10. to adduce and challenge evidence;
    11. not to be compelled to give self-incriminating evidence;
    12. to be tried in a language that the accused person understands or, if that is not practicable, to have the proceedings interpreted in that language;
    13. not to be convicted for an act or omission that was not an offence under either national or international law at the time it was committed or omitted;
    14. not to be tried for an offence in respect of an act or omission for which that person has previously been either acquitted or convicted;
    1. to the benefit of the least severe of the prescribed punishments if the prescribed punishment for the offence has been changed between the time that the offence was committed and the time of sentencing; and
    2. of appeal to, or review by, a higher court.
  • Whenever this section requires information to be given to a person, that information must be given in a language that the person understands.
  • Evidence obtained in a manner that violates any right in the Bill of Rights must be excluded if the admission of that evidence would render the trial unfair or otherwise be detrimental to the administration of justice.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
what's the program
Jordan
?
Jordan
what chemical
Jordan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Lewensorientering graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11047/1.1
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