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The turned-in knees of humans and of Australopithecus allow the feet to be aligned to the front.

This means that the ball of the foot and the big toe, in particular, plays an important role in walking.

Source C

Pelvic girdles and thighbones. The similarity of the human thighbone and that of Australopithecus is clearly identifiable. The vertical black line G indicates the axis along which the weight is transferred from the hip to the knee. A = os ileum (hipbone), B = socket for the thighbone, C = os pubis (pubic bone), D = os ischium, E = os sacrum, F = os femur (thighbone).

Source D

With Australopithecus the knee joints were turned inwards, as with modern human beings and their footprints formed a similar pattern to ours. The chimpanzee has a waddling gait when it walks on hind legs only.

Twelve years later, in 1936, Dr. Robert Boom discovered an adult skull at Sterkfontein (near Krugersdorp). He initially thought that he had found a female of a new species and named it Plesianthropus transvaalensis (Mrs. Ples). But further investigation revealed Mrs. Ples to be virtually identical to the Taung child.

Activity 2:

To understand time by showing that some communities changed because of particular circumstances, while other communities were unaffected

[lo 2.1]

a) Study the following and then answer the questions that are provided. First make a sketch illustrating similar circumstances at your home.

  • Is it difficult to get hold of food ? Is food shared among the family members?
  • What kind of clothing is worn?
  • What is revealed about family life? Do adults care for their children?
  • What equipment and weapons are used? Has technology brought about any changes?
  • Is it possible to be safe while sleeping at night ?
  • Do men and women have different tasks ?
  • Do these people remain in one place for a long time?

b) Develop a comic strip or an art song to give expression to the above information.


Assessment standards(ASe)
LEARNING OUTCOME 1: HISTORICAL ENQUIRY- The learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate the past and present
1.1 Access the sources
1.2 Use the sources
1.3 Communicate information from sources (reporting))
LEARNING OUTCOME 2: HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding
2.1 Understand chronology and time
2.2 Supply reasons why an historical event took place (causes, effects)
2.3 Differentiate between different periods (similarities, differences)
LEARNING OUTCOME 3: INTERPRETING HISTORY – The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history
3.1 Be aware of more than one view of the past
3.2 Distinguish between fact and opinion
3.3 Reconstruct the past


Activity 1

There are clear differences between apes and human beings. Man is the only primate to walk upright. The shape of the pelvis, the position of the femur, and the way in which the feet are put down, are very specific. A comparison between the build of the rest of the body and the brain indicates that the Australopithecus is related closer to man. There was a development pattern from Australopithecus through Homo habilis and Homo erectus to the modern day Homo sapiens .

Activity 2

Suppose this illustration is a representation of the Stone Age :

They lived in caves where they slept and kept food, and used tools, weapons and fire. Gathering food was the main activity. The men hunted and caught fish. The women and children gathered berries, wild fruit and root plants. They also hoarded food for the winter months and also prepared food. Tools were made of bone, stone and wood and gradually improved because they also manufactured arrows, axes and daggers. They could manufacture objects, e.g. “needles” that were used to sew clothing from wool and flax. Early man never stayed long in one place.

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11023/1.1
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