# 4.1 Faraday's law

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Faraday's Law is stated.

## Faraday's law

The magnetic flux is ${\Phi }_{M}=\int \stackrel{⃗}{B}\cdot d\stackrel{⃗}{A}$ A device that can maintain a potential difference, despite the flow of currentis a source of electromotive force. (EMF) The definition is mathematically $\varepsilon =\oint \stackrel{⃗}{E}\cdot d\stackrel{⃗}{s}$ Faraday's law statesthat $\varepsilon =-\frac{\partial {\Phi }_{M}}{\partial t}$ This is simply an experimental fact.

Faraday's law could also be written $\oint \stackrel{⃗}{E}\cdot d\stackrel{⃗}{s}=-\frac{\partial }{\partial t}\int \stackrel{⃗}{B}\cdot d\stackrel{⃗}{A}$

I will leave it as a problem to show that this can also be written $\stackrel{⃗}{\nabla }×\stackrel{⃗}{E}=-\frac{\partial \stackrel{⃗}{B}}{\partial t}\text{.}$

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At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
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Source:  OpenStax, Waves and optics. OpenStax CNX. Nov 17, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10279/1.33
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 By Lakeima Roberts By By Eric Crawford