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Energy changes in chemical reactions

All reactions involve some change in energy. During a physical change in matter, such as the evaporation of liquid water to water vapour, the energy of the water molecules increases. However, the change in energy is much smaller than in chemical reactions.

When a chemical reaction occurs, some bonds will break , while new bonds may form . Energy changes in chemical reactions result from the breaking and forming of bonds. For bonds to break , energy must be absorbed . When new bonds form , energy will be released because the new product has a lower energy than the `in between' stage of the reaction when the bonds in the reactants have just been broken.

In some reactions, the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants is less than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall reaction, energy is released . This type of reaction is known as an exothermic reaction. In other reactions, the energy that must be absorbed to break the bonds in the reactants is more than the total energy that is released when new bonds are formed. This means that in the overall reaction, energy must be absorbed from the surroundings. This type of reaction is known as an endothermic reaction. Most decomposition reactions are endothermic and heating is needed for the reaction to occur. Most synthesis reactions are exothermic, meaning that energy is given off in the form of heat or light.

More simply, we can describe the energy changes that take place during a chemical reaction as:

Total energy absorbed to break bonds - Total energy released when new bonds form

So, for example, in the reaction...

2Mg + O 2 2MgO

Energy is needed to break the O-O bonds in the oxygen molecule so that new Mg-O bonds can be formed, and energy is released when the product (MgO) forms.

Despite all the energy changes that seem to take place during reactions, it is important to remember that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy that enters a system will have come from the surrounding environment and energy that leaves a system will again become part of that environment. This is known as the conservation of energy principle.

Conservation of energy principle

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.

Chemical reactions may produce some very visible and often violent changes. An explosion, for example, is a sudden increase in volume and release of energy when high temperatures are generated and gases are released. For example, NH 4 NO 3 can be heated to generate nitrous oxide. Under these conditions, it is highly sensitive and can detonate easily in an explosive exothermic reaction.

Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions

The total mass of all the substances taking part in a chemical reaction is conserved during a chemical reaction. This is known as the law of conservation of mass . The total number of atoms of each element also remains the same during a reaction, although these may be arranged differently in the products.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula textbooks: grade 10 physical science. OpenStax CNX. Aug 29, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11245/1.3
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