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Map taken from Reference 97

After Peru was liberated from Spain by Bolivar, there was still no real political stability and civil strife continued until 1845 when Rarnon Castilla emerged as one of the strong men supported by the military. Even another small war with Spain occurred between 1863 and 1871 over some small off-shore islands. Before the war's end Jose Balta had become president and had begun some material expansion of Peru. Unfortunately Peru joined the wrong side in the War of the Pacific, mentioned above, and at the end lost the province of Tarapaca and after long haggling, the coastal portions of two more provinces.

In 1816 Jose Rodriquez de Francia made himself perpetual dictator of Paraguay as well as head of the Paraguayan Church and sealed that country off from the rest of the world until his death in 1840. He was succeeded by another dictator, Carlos Antonio Lopez, who held absolute power until 1862. His son, Francisco Solano Lopez succeeded him and attempted to increase the power of the country by vigorous means. The population had increased to over 1,000,000 and the first railway was constructed about that time. Lopez's ambitions for additional territory, however, brought about war with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay (The War of the Triple Alliance) between 1865 and 1870 and the Paraguayan nation was virtually annihilated, with only about 28,000 men and some 200,000 women surviving. A long period of instability followed, with the economy slow in recovering.

In general we may say that the penchant for alternating dictatorships with various odd types of democracy has continued throughout Latin America even through the 20th century.

The Four Great Indian Nations of the southeast were Jackson's problems. The Chickasaw, Creek and Choctaw were all advanced civilized peoples, but the Cherokees were astounding. Spread over northwest Georgia into Alabama and part of Tennessee, the Cherokees had a printed language, which had been developed by George Gist, also known as Sequoyah, a Cherokee half-breed. Bibles, other books and even a weekly newspaper, "The Cherokee Phoenix", were printed. They welcomed Christian missionaries, built roads, houses and churches. In 1826 a Cherokee reported that his people possessed 22,000 cattle, 7,600 houses, 46,000 swine, 2,500 sheep, 762 looms, 1,488 spinning wheels, 2,948 plows 10 saw mills, 31 grist mills, 62 blacksmith shops and 18 schools. They were more civilized than the Georgia "crackers", who coveted their lands. The independence of that Cherokee nation had been guaranteed by the U.S. in a treaty of 1791, but the state of Georgia had been chopping away at their lands for 30 years and the discovery of gold in the area in 1828 was the last straw. The Indians had to be moved to Oklahoma Territory. The journey cost them 25% of their numbers but they retained their identity, government, language and alphabet to this day. (Ref. 64 ) There were several important landmarks in the approach to the American Civil War. Among these was the Dred Scott Decision. Dred Scott, a slave, having been taken temporarily into a free state, sued for his freedom and the Supreme Court decided against him on these grounds: (1) A Negro could not be a U.S. citizen and therefore could not sue. (2) As a resident of Missouri, the laws of Illinois (where he had been taken) did not apply. (3) In any event, Congress could not deprive citizens of their property - in this case a slave. This was in 1857. Another stepping stone toward war was John Brown's raid: John Brown, a long avid abolitionist, seized the federal arsenal at Harpers’ Ferry in October, 1859, as the first step in establishing a planned Negro Republic. He was later hanged. In the meantime, Lincoln, as a member of the new Republican Party, appeared on the scene. His party won the Congressional elections of 1860, combining solid policies of Hamiltonian Federalism with the hopeful, humanitarian outlook of the old party of Jefferson. Minnesota and Oregon were admitted as new states in 1858 and 1859, making 18 free and still only 15 slave states. Lincoln won the new presidential election as the Democrats fought and split over Douglas and Buchanan. (Ref. 39 ) The Navaho Indians have withstood the white onslaught better than most and this may be because they are cultural "borrowers" - learning agriculture, weaving and pottery from their early, settled, Pueblo neighbors, stealing horses from the Spanish and many social and religious ideas from the Mexicans. In 1863 Colonel Kit Carson subjugated the Navaho and imprisoned 8,500 of them in Fort Sumner. After three years they were released to a 16 million acre reservation in the southwest. While in prison some learned silver working and with this and their other skills they have survived as traders in the American market. (Ref. 151 , 8 , 39 ) Up to 1868 nearly 450 treaties had been signed by the U.S. government with various Indian groups and scarcely a one remained unbroken. With the end of the Indian wars an economic recession hit the West, for up to 1870 the federal administrations had been spending about $1,000,000 for every Indian killed. (Ref. 64 )

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Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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