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To go back in time to the early century, having established their own independence from Spain, Argentina and Chile went to the aid of Peru in 1821, with San Martin leading the army and Admiral Cochrane cooperating with the Chilean navy. In 1822 San Martin and Simon Bolivar met in Guayaquil at a time when only one Spanish army was left in the field. That army surrendered at Ayacucho in 1824. Simon Bolivar had dreamed of one great state of Colombia, but it was not to be and Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela went their separate ways. Bolivia became independent under Bolivar in 1825 as a country some 21/2 times its present size. It was the rich nitrate and copper deposits along the coast that tempted Chile to seize that portion in the War of the Pacific (see paragraph above). In the 20th century other neighbors were to further chew up the borders of hapless Bolivia. Things were not a whole lot better in Colombia. In the seventy years just prior to 1903 that country had 17 civil wars, with conservatives, liberals, Catholics and separatists all involved from time to time. (Ref. 175 ) Originally a part of Colombia, Panama was given a federal status by Colombian constitutional amendment in 1855, although Panama did not declare its complete independence until after the turn of the century. Large oil reserves were found in Venezuela in 1870 and in the 20th century this has greatly increased that nation's importance in the world. (Ref. 213 )

Portugal acted differently from Spain and met the demands of local autonomy. (Ref. 8 ) When Prince Regent Dom Joao, fleeing from Napoleon, landed in Rio in 1808 that city became capital of an empire including, besides Brazil itself, various Atlantic Islands, Angola and Mozambique in Africa and scattered areas in China, India and Oceania. Brazilian ports were opened; manufacture of iron and textiles undertaken; a bank, naval college, medical faculty, library and printing press were established. European artists and scientists arrived. Even so, as late as 1820 Brazil, in spite of gold and diamond mines and the Portuguese empire, was a poor, oppressed country, thinly populated and with little or no intellectual potential. (Ref. 292 ) Dom Joao returned to Portugal in 1821 with most of the cash from the Bank of Brazil, leaving Crown Prince Pedro to govern. On October 12, 1822 the Senate proclaimed him as constitutional Emperor of Brazil as Pedro I. Opposition to his autocratic ways and his obvious primary interest in the mother country finally forced his abdication in favor of his 5 year old son, Pedro II. Between 1840 and 1889 provincial revolts were gradually brought to a close and a period of order and progress was initiated. Commerce and industry expanded, 6,000 miles of railways were constructed by 1889, gold mines were further developed and sugar and rubber production were promoted. In 1872 the population was over 10,000,000, including 1,500,000 slaves. These were emancipated in 1888. Things changed in November of 1889 when the army, headed by General Manoel Deodoro da Fonseca, revolted and deposed the emperor and proclaimed a republic. Fonseca was elected president in 1891.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
yes
Asali
I'm not good at math so would you help me
Samantha
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
Asali
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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