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The United States government gave the companies a subsidy of $16,000 per mile of track on the prairie and $48,000 per mile in the mountains. The two tracks met at Promontory Point, Utah on May 10, 1869. In the first 2 decades of operation, freight rates were lowered 500% and travel time reduced by 900%. By 1890 the rail network was larger than in all Europe, including the British Isles and Russia. (Ref. 175 , 62 , 39 , 8 )

In 1867 at the end of a spur railroad line, Joseph McCoy bought the town of Abilene, Kansas for $5 an acre and then spent $5,000 for various kinds of promotions to get cattle there from Texas for shipment east. The result was the Chisholm Trail, beginning in south Texas near the Gulf and going through Oklahoma to Abilene. At the end of the Civil War, herds of 2,000 to 3,000 head of long-horned cattle moved regularly up this trail, from the matrix of some 3,000,000 of those cattle in Texas. Their ancestors had been brought over in the second voyage of Columbus. A good drive to Kansas was completed in three months. In the first 4 years McCoy shipped over 2,000,000 cattle out of his stock yards, greatly exceeding even his own boasts and it is probable that this was the origin of the expression "the real McCoy". In the 1860s and 1870s there were multiple cowtowns with cowboys, claim jumpers, fugitives, prostitutes and the natural enemies - cattlemen and sheep men. The death rate in those cow towns was proportionately 10 or 20 times as high as New York City today. Some of the mining towns were even worse. But the Great Plains, finally cleared of Indians and buffalo, were open for cattle. Between 1860 and 1880 even Kansas increased its cattle herds 16 fold and Nebraska by 30 times. In 1886 Wyoming had 9,000,000 cattle, although many owners went broke in the financial panic of 1885-87) (Ref. 39 , 211 )

In 1840 it took 233 man-hours of work to grow 100 bushels of wheat, but in 1920 it took only 80 man-hours. Part of that was due to the great increase in the number of draft horses, rising from 6,200,000 in 1850 to over 15,500,000 by 1900. American grain sent to Europe was cheaper than that grown locally and European agriculture was disrupted.

One result of that was Norwegian emigration to America. Social changes were in part related to various immigration patterns. The proportion of British Isle immigrants fell from 45% in 1861-1870 to 18% in 1891-1900 while that of - Russians and southern Europeans rose from 0.1% to 50% in the same period. Most of the newcomers went to the northeast so that in 1900 86% of the foreign-born were in states north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.

The first significant labor organization was the "Knights of Labor", founded in 1869 and winning the first railroad strike in 1884. Marxists and anarchists started other unions, with the latter fanning the infamous Haymarket Square riot in 1886, as part of a Chicago strike. In 1886 Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor, which gradually succeeded the Knights as the spearhead of the American Labor movement. (Ref. 211 , 151 )

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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