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In March, 1867, by Act of Congress, military rule replaced the civil administrations of the rebel states. The Union military enrolled a new electorate and proceeded to set up reconstructed state governments. This was accomplished by 1870. Those radical governments persisted in some states for up to 8 years - Louisiana, Florida and Texas - and while they were infamous for some types of corruption, they also accomplished some good legislation that resulted in rebuilding schools, roads, railroads, etc. But overall, those governments were bad and in the end neither the freed Negroes nor the Republican party profited.

More disgraceful activities followed - the impeachment of President Johnson

Fortunately the Senate, organized as a court under the Chief Justice, failed to convict Johnson and he remained in office
and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan.

The election of the war hero, GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT to the presidency started a dynasty of Republicans, which lasted almost to the end of the century. Unfortunately, below the presidency the corruption of the party was abominable. The Civil War, like every other war, had broken down morals and everyone was out to "make a fast buck". In addition stock speculation, over-rapid expansion of the agricultural west and a world-wide drop in prices brought on the panic of 1873 and a depression which lasted 3 years. Corruption and boss rule continued throughout the century. (Ref. 39 )

Expansion, development, and social changes in the last 30 years of the 19th century

An interesting feature of the last half of the century was the development of the Mormon culture in Utah. When Brigham Young had arrived in that area in 1841 it was the northern-most province of Mexico. The Mormons found a desert and made it over into one of the most fertile areas of the west and for many years they kept to themselves and practiced their religion, which included polygamy. When PRESIDENT GROVER CLEVELAND signed the act which made Utah the 45th state in the 1890s, however, polygamy had to stop. Some of the Mormons migrated to northern Mexico, rather than live under the Union's laws. (Ref. 39 )

During the period from 1850 to 1870 the high plains states and the Rocky Mountain areas enjoyed a very moist period, but that was followed by decades of drought, with a great reduction of grass. That had a serious effect on the cattle herds, with a drastic reduction in numbers and it would have been the same for the buffalo herds, reducing them by 50 to 70%, even if they hadn't been over hunted. The Sioux Indians of the Dakotas, who were originally farmers, only became buffalo hunters shortly before their extermination late in this century. The buffalo herds were cut in two by the railroad as it went west in the late 1860s. Up to the time of the Civil War, the eastern (Union Pacific) railroad went only to Council Bluffs, Iowa and there was a Central Pacific RR running north and southwest of the Sierras. In 1866 Congress allowed the two commercial companies to build, one from each direction, and meet wherever they chanced. For a single mile of track they needed 40 cars to carry 400 tons of rail and timber (for- ties, bridges, etc.), fuel and food. The Central Pacific had to get its materials, except for timber, by sea - some 12,000 miles around Cape Horn. Eastern work gangs were chiefly new immigrants, mainly Irish, using plenty of whiskey, while the western crews were primarily Chinese, needing tea.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
ninjadapaul
20/(×-6^2)
Salomon
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
ninjadapaul
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
ninjadapaul
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
Salomon
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
Salomon
I got X =-6
Salomon
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
ninjadapaul
oops. ignore that.
ninjadapaul
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
ninjadapaul
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
hello
Sherica
im all ears I need to learn
Sherica
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
Tamia
hii
Uday
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
Kim
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Al
y=10×
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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