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In March, 1867, by Act of Congress, military rule replaced the civil administrations of the rebel states. The Union military enrolled a new electorate and proceeded to set up reconstructed state governments. This was accomplished by 1870. Those radical governments persisted in some states for up to 8 years - Louisiana, Florida and Texas - and while they were infamous for some types of corruption, they also accomplished some good legislation that resulted in rebuilding schools, roads, railroads, etc. But overall, those governments were bad and in the end neither the freed Negroes nor the Republican party profited.

More disgraceful activities followed - the impeachment of President Johnson

Fortunately the Senate, organized as a court under the Chief Justice, failed to convict Johnson and he remained in office
and the rise of the Ku Klux Klan.

The election of the war hero, GENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT to the presidency started a dynasty of Republicans, which lasted almost to the end of the century. Unfortunately, below the presidency the corruption of the party was abominable. The Civil War, like every other war, had broken down morals and everyone was out to "make a fast buck". In addition stock speculation, over-rapid expansion of the agricultural west and a world-wide drop in prices brought on the panic of 1873 and a depression which lasted 3 years. Corruption and boss rule continued throughout the century. (Ref. 39 )

Expansion, development, and social changes in the last 30 years of the 19th century

An interesting feature of the last half of the century was the development of the Mormon culture in Utah. When Brigham Young had arrived in that area in 1841 it was the northern-most province of Mexico. The Mormons found a desert and made it over into one of the most fertile areas of the west and for many years they kept to themselves and practiced their religion, which included polygamy. When PRESIDENT GROVER CLEVELAND signed the act which made Utah the 45th state in the 1890s, however, polygamy had to stop. Some of the Mormons migrated to northern Mexico, rather than live under the Union's laws. (Ref. 39 )

During the period from 1850 to 1870 the high plains states and the Rocky Mountain areas enjoyed a very moist period, but that was followed by decades of drought, with a great reduction of grass. That had a serious effect on the cattle herds, with a drastic reduction in numbers and it would have been the same for the buffalo herds, reducing them by 50 to 70%, even if they hadn't been over hunted. The Sioux Indians of the Dakotas, who were originally farmers, only became buffalo hunters shortly before their extermination late in this century. The buffalo herds were cut in two by the railroad as it went west in the late 1860s. Up to the time of the Civil War, the eastern (Union Pacific) railroad went only to Council Bluffs, Iowa and there was a Central Pacific RR running north and southwest of the Sierras. In 1866 Congress allowed the two commercial companies to build, one from each direction, and meet wherever they chanced. For a single mile of track they needed 40 cars to carry 400 tons of rail and timber (for- ties, bridges, etc.), fuel and food. The Central Pacific had to get its materials, except for timber, by sea - some 12,000 miles around Cape Horn. Eastern work gangs were chiefly new immigrants, mainly Irish, using plenty of whiskey, while the western crews were primarily Chinese, needing tea.

Questions & Answers

Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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