<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The first gun of the Civil War was fired April 12, 1861 as the Confederate officers started to take Fort Sumter at Charleston, North Carolina. That firing on the flag was enough to arouse patriotism in the north and then events moved swiftly. To win, the north had to completely crush the south and most European experts thought this impossible.

Lincoln's paramount object was to save the Union, not to destroy slavery, but in the fall of 1862 after General Lee's army had been exhausted and depleted at Antietam, he did announce his Emancipation Proclamation to officially free the slaves in the rebel states. The loyal slave states (Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, West Virginia and Missouri) only later freed their slaves by state action.

Mostly boys fought the Civil War, it being almost certain that the majority on both sides were under 21, many as young as 15. Even the officers were young, some major generals being in their 20s. At least 540,000 Americans (population in 1860 was over 31,000,000) lost their lives in or as a result of that war. The average soldier was sick enough 2 or 3 times each year to be sent to a hospital, which was of ten a more dangerous place than the battlefield. Antisepsis was unknown, anesthetics not always available and abdominal wounds and major amputations meant probable death. The south had the best medical corps as a result of the work of their capable surgeon-general, Dr. Samuel Preston Moore, but neither side had an effective transportation system early and the south never developed one. In the last 2 years of the war the use of anesthetics finally became routine in the northern armies only. (Ref. 125 ) The commander of the Confederate Navy had a son killed in the Union Navy and Mrs. Lincoln's three brothers died fighting for the south.

In this outline we shall not attempt to record the campaigns and battles of this war. In spite of a series of costly land campaigns over two years, the Union won only after the South had been starved by a Union blockade and split by the Mississippi. The best officers on both sides were West Point graduates, but Lincoln may have been the best strategist of them all. He offered command of the Union forces at the beginning to General Robert E. Lee and Lee was against slavery, but he was a fifth generation Virginian and felt that he had to stay with his state. Most of the fighting was done in rough, forested country. Antietam, Gettysburg and Fredericksburg were the only important battles in open country. General Lee persistently underestimated the effect of rifle fire over open ground and that is why his attacks failed at Antietam and Gettysburg. The Union's .58 caliber rifle, 4' 8" long, fired by a percussion cap, could be fired at 3 rounds per minute and could kill at over 1/2 mile. Mines and submarines were used for defense in shoal waters. A new innovation was air observation from balloons. 50uthern hopes of a quick victory were based on the expectation that the North would not f ight and that England, needing cotton, would go to war to help the South. Both assumptions were in error, although warships for the Confederacy were built in both British and French ports.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?