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By 1850 there had been formulated three basic principles of education:

  • Free primary and secondary schools should be available for all children
  • teachers should have professional training
  • all children should be required to attend some school- up to a certain age

By 1840 over 150 small denominational colleges were in existence in the country. American science soon became specialized. Joseph Henry discovered the electromagnet and many other features of electricity and Samuel F.B. Morse used the former to develop the telegraph. Charles Goodyear had patented the vulcanization of rubber by 1844. The Smithsonian Institute was started in 1846 with Joseph Henry as its first director. Only astronomy lagged and this was due to the effect of organized religion, which considered probing the heavens with a telescope as mildly blasphemous.

And now we must consider life in the American south. We have already discussed the Indian-Negro situation at some length on pages 1115 and 1116. "Cotton was king in the south from 1815 to 1861, and the principle bulwark of his throne was Negro slavery"

Quotation from Reference 151, page 500
. By 1860 the crop was almost 2,300,000,000 pounds, accounting for 2/3 of the total exports of the United States and 5/6 of the world's production. In that harvest 4,000,000 slaves were used. A prime field hand 18 to 25 years old was worth $500 in 1832 and $1.300 just before the panic of 1837, although their yearly maintenance cost only $15 to $60. Morison (Ref. 151 ) says that 13% of all Negroes in the U.S. in 1860 were mulattoes, but as we have seen, later writers might put this much higher, especially if one adds in Indian blood. The south was ruled by a few but strong classical southern gentlemen, of which only a few descended from the colonial aristocracy. The great mass of wealthy planters by 1860 were self-made men like Jefferson Davis, whose parents had lived in log cabins. There were probably fewer than 15,000 families of the southern white gentry and most of the white southerners were small farm owners. The latter were actually the governing class in Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas. About half the cotton crop was made by those who owned from 1 to 6 slaves. Whites were forbidden to teach slaves to read and write in every southern state except Maryland, Kentucky and Tennessee. (Ref. 151 ) In contrast to this slavery in America we should recall that although slavery was almost universal in more ancient times, the slaves then were of the same race as their masters, of ten the better educated and usually could work or buy their way out of slavery eventually. In the U.S., slavery was fatally united with the permanent, physical fact of color. (Ref. 217 ) A slave rebellion led by Nat Turner in Virginia in 1831 resulted in the deaths of 57 whites and perhaps up to 100 Negroes before it could be put down by regular troops and navy personnel. Elsewhere in America slaves were being freed, in the British colonies in 1833, the French Antilles in 1848 and the Spanish republics in turn between 1813 and 1854. Only in a few Spanish and Dutch islands, the United States and Brazil did slavery continue after 1854. Some effort had been made to return blacks to Africa by the American Colonization Society, but by 1855 only 3,600 had been sent. This did help the Republic of Liberia to form a constitution patterned on the U. S. model, however, in 1857.

Questions & Answers

how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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