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Korea

Throughout most of the century Korea remained under suzerainty of the Chinese Manchus, although with their own kings. After systemic persecution of Christians under the regent Tai Wen Kun, there were several western expeditions attacking Korea, including a French force and an American naval force under Captain Shufeldt. Three ports were opened to Japanese trade in 1876 and in 1882 a treaty with the United States, negotiated by Shufeldt, allowed certain extra-territorial rights and permission to trade. China and Japan then began to dispute rights of control over the peninsula. In 1894, led by a Japanese underworld strongman sent specifically for the purpose, a group of Koreans, the Tonghaks, known to favor closing the country to Japanese trade, started a revolution. When Chinese troops were being mobilized at the call of the Korean government and Czar Nicholas had massed troops on the northern Korean border, Japanese troops suddenly arrived by sea and occupied Seoul and other Korean cities. The Chinese navy, attempting to prevent reinforcements of the invaders, was sunk by the Japanese navy. The non-entity, who was the emperor of Korea, ran to Russia. China sued for peace, giving Japan the right to "protect" Korea, an indemnity and the island of Taiwan. But Russian influence was still dominant and a Russian-Korean Bank was formed, while timber and mining concessions were given to Russia. On June 9, 1896 Japan and Russia established the Labanov-Yamagata Agreement under which the two countries cooperated in the reform of the army and finances of Korea, but Russian penetration continued, setting the stage for the Russian-Japanese War in the next century. (Ref. 8 , 12 , 119 , 46 )

Southeast asia

Mainland southeast asia

Burma

Burma, having failed to invade Siam in the last century, now turned its expansion policy toward the west, threatening Bengal, seizing Manipur and Assam in 1822. This soon brought King Bagyidaw up against the British East India Company and in the next 62 years there were three Burmese Wars with the British. The latter won the first war of 1824-26 and annexed Assam, Arakan and Tenasserim to British India. After the 2nd war in 1852 the British occupied the Irrawaddy delta region and stimulated great rice production there, as well as opening up the great teak forests. After the 3rd war in 1886 Upper Burma was added to the British domain, although guerrilla activity continued for years, with 32,000 British troops still involved between 1886 and 1891. The Shan states were not subdued until 1887 and the Chin Hills not until 1891. (Ref. 8 , 175 , 119 )

Thailand: siam and cambodia

After the long conflict with Burma had ended, Siam secured part of Cambodia through division of that state with Annam and finally, in 1844, the whole of Cambodia passed under the protection of Siam's King Mongkut. Rama IV (1851-1868), ruler and monk, philosopher and scientist, who taught himself English and Latin, made a study of western governments and began the work of modernizing Siam. After new treaties were drawn up with Great Britain in 1855, consuls were established and trade agreements initiated. In 1863 the French established a protectorate over Cambodia and Siam gave up its claims to that region. The real founder of modern Siam was Rama V, Chulalongkorn. Under him the old feudal system was abolished, slavery was reduced and there was administrative reform with new taxation and finance methods, better postal service, the telegraph (1883) and the first railway in 1893. But the French had long been trying to extend their dominions westward to the Mekong River and finally, after an acute Anglo-

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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
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Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
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for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
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AMJAD
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Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
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AMJAD
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AMJAD
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Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
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Azam
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Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
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Prasenjit
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Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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