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Europe (a "french century", with a decline of religion in political affairs)

Back to Europe: A.D. 1601 to 1700

Even before the Industrial Revolution of the last quarter of this century, there was dramatic change in Europe. Spain and Italy were declining rapidly, while England, France, Sweden (exploiting mineral resources) were developing quickly. But it was a century of almost constant warfare, with conflict going on in some area all the time and in several localities at once most of the time. (Ref. 8 ) McNeill (Ref. 279 ) emphasizes that there were four limits to the existing military organizations:

  • The difficulty of controlling the movements of an army of more than about 50,000 men. New forms of communication and more accurate terrain maps were needed
  • Slow transport of supplies. Food for the men and fodder for thousands of horses made a bulky and awkward supply train. Living off the countryside destroyed the tax-base and allowed the soldiers to get out of control as they became immersed in plunder, so the rulers sought to supply armies from the rear
  • Organizational and tactical problems. With the long history of mercenary contingents and patronage appointments, it was difficult to organize an effective, cohesive army based on training and ability, tempered with seniority
  • Sociological and psychological restraints. Peasants were needed to produce the food and townsmen to provide the money, so that it was difficult to recruit enough men for a professional army without infringing on those two necessary groups

The answer to some of the above situations was in the development of new technology in weapons, such as mobile field artillery; development of accurate small-scale mapping; the break-down of the armies to divisions, units of about 12,000 men, but complete within themselves, with infantry, cavalry, artillery and all supportive elements; and better road-building .

At the same time, in spite of the warfare, the 18th century saw the heyday of wealthy merchants all over Europe. (Ref. 292 ) The philosophers were convinced that this was an age of enlightenment and progress, but it was a time of bungling politicians, greedy nobles, of immorality and corruption also. There were other paradoxes. In spite of great scientific advancements in physics and chemistry, the practice of medicine lagged far behind and may even have declined. Bleeding, cupping and purging remained prominent treatments. (Ref. 125 ) An estimated 60 million Europeans died of small-pox in the century and early there was an extensive famine, as frost killed crops as far south as the Mediterranean coast. The winter of 1709 was especially severe, with most northern rivers and even ocean coastal waters frozen. (Ref. 222 ) Typhus fever took its own toll, with a severe epidemic in Sweden and the loss of 30,000 people in France in mid-century. Yellow fever killed 10,000 in Cadiz, Spain. (Ref. 222 )

The population of Europe went from 140 to 188 million from 1750 to 1800. The majority of the people were illiterate. In the f irst half of the century their civilization was based almost as much on wine as on wheat. Europe as a whole must have been burning 200 million tons of wood yearly up until about 1790 when coal came into more common usage. At the same time there were approximately 14 million horses, 24 million oxen, the equivalent of 4 to 5 million horsepower in the form of wood, 1.5 to 3 million horsepower potential in 600,000 watermills, 900,000 horsepower in the 50 million human workers and 233,000 horsepower in the form of sails, not counting war-fleets. (Ref. 211 , 260 )

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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