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We have noted that as the last century closed the Japanese hero of the bloody Korean-Japanese conflict, Hideyoshi, died during the peace negotiation. As this 17th century began, Tokugawa leyasu, of royal blood, fought his rival generals and became the new shogun and brought order out of chaos by establishing a new currency, a money rather than a rice economy, a police network of the unemployed samurai and ruled as tyrant, while still giving young Emperor Go-Yozei some of the taxes. At the emperor's request Tokugawa issued an edict ordering the deportation of foreign priests, the demolition of churches and the renunciation of faith by Christians "who seek to change the government and obtain possession of the land". Still, in the first decade of the century Japan was a profitable rendezvous f or Portuguese traders. Every year the Macao carrack brought about 200 merchants to Nagasaki, where they would stay for 7 or 8 months, spending money freely. (Ref. 292 ) When Tokugawa sought to evacuate the Portuguese and Spanish friars, he was influenced by Will Adams, an English pilot of a Dutch ship, whom the shogun had kept as a prisoner but finally had him build 2 European ships. For this Adams was made a samurai and given an estate. Although against Portuguese and Spanish aggression, Tokugawa was not against all Christians and did not want to stop profitable trade with Protestants from Holland and England. But after his death in 1616

Tokugawa's heirs ran the administration of Japan for the hidden emperors for the next 252 years. (Ref. 12 )
, Catholic Christians were further persecuted and between 1620 and 1635 some 6,000 were crucified, some of them upside down like St. Peter. By that time 1 out of every 50 Japanese had been converted to Christianity and there were some Christian clan lords with armed infantry. The Emperor G-Mizu-no-o felt that his shogun was not doing his job of expelling those Christians, so he abdicated in 1629, putting a 7 year old girl on the throne, the first empress since 769. That was a sign to all that the Tokugawas were infringing on the imperial power and were fit to manage no one but little girls. Soon the shogun went to Kyoto to parley, with a great show of pomp and power, taking 307,000 retainers. After the meeting the shogun clamped down on all foreigners and closed the country except for a small Dutch trading post on a tiny island in Nagasaki harbor. Every time a Dutch or Chinese vessel did arrive there "on permission" a kind of fair was held and in the exchange Japan could export its silver and copper. Thus Japan still had some impact on world economy. It was the merchants of Osaka who were in charge of the internal trade. Japan would not be open again for 211 years. (Ref. 12 , 292 )

In 1657 fire destroyed most of Edo and killed more than 100,000 Japanese. (Ref. 222 ) The shoguns of the late part of the century were on the whole only mediocre. The so-called Genroku Age of letters and art developed between 1688 and 1703. During this time of isolation from the rest of the world, Japan kept her population stable by various devices, chiefly infanticide. Although rice had been grown some since the 1st century of the Christian Era, it was only in this century that it began to play a large part in the Japanese diet. Yedo (also Edo and later to become Tokyo) began to be the largest city, with over 500,000 citizens plus an enormous garrison of soldiers, with their families. The old capital of Kyoto sunk to second place. Merchant dynasties became established and some such as the Mitsui family have survived until today. They were sake manufacturers in 1620 and became the financial agent of both the shogun and of the imperial household in 1690. (Ref. 260 , 292 )

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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