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Although it is well known that cattle are considered sacred and left running free in much of India, in the 17th century many were harnessed to plows and carriages and even ridden by soldiers and nobles. The Mouris caste sometimes had enormous convoys of up to 10,000 animals transporting grain and rice. India had many highly skilled workers, particularly in the textile industries, even though they did not develop the high quality tools that were used in Europe. (Ref. 260 , 292 )

By 1700, as the Mogul administration was in decay, the Marathas were ravaging the Deccan and eastern provinces and previous Mogul allies such as Rajputs, Sikhs, Jats and Satnamis were all revolting. In the meantime Portuguese influence on the coast shrank both in territory and cornmercial profit, but Dutch, English, French and Danish companies were all eager to set up coastal trading centers to export textiles, sugar, indigo and salt petre. (Ref. 8 ) Near Portuguese Goa, because of a shortage of wood, houses were small and made of straw and most had no fireplace or windows. The furniture consisted of a few rush mats. (Ref. 260 ) Nevertheless, every urban center in India had its money-changing bankers - the sarafs , who mostly belonged to the powerful trading caste of the Banyans. Although there were no large stock exchanges as in Europe, still there were bills of exchange, currency exchange, credit and maritime insuranCe and the Banyans acted as brokers and middle men for all the European activities. Not surprisingly the Fuggers and the Welsers of Augsburg were also well represented in India, with their joint representative, Ferdinand Cron, operating out of Cochin and then Goa. He amassed a personal fortune by 1619 working with Spanish and Portuguese, although the latter finally imprisoned him. (Ref. 292 )

The French East India company, founded in 1664, never did well, perhaps because of a lack of means and the general immaturity of French capitalism. Surat, on the Gulf of Cambay, progressively became more and more of a boom city as the century progressed. First the English had a trading post there in 1609, then the Dutch in 1616 and the French in 1665, with lavish equipment. In 1652 Surat was already as large as Lyons, with a population perhaps approaching a million, acting as the gateway to the Mogul Empire. The Banyans were the most important group of intermediaries. (Ref. 292 ) Calcutta was founded by the British East India Company on the Hooghly River in 1690 by absorbing three villages, one of which was called Kalikata, honoring the goddess Kali, which may have given Calcutta its name. (Ref. 172 )

Heirs of Sivaji, the peshwas, were a tight clique of Chitpawan (purified by fire) Brahmans, who continued to resist British rule in the south. (Ref. 37 ) The poet, Tulsi Das, translated material into Hindu from the Ramayana, elaborating on the divine incarnation, Rama. This was widely popular and of enormous importance for later moral and religious education. This popular movement, along with that of Chaitanya and Sin Das, helped protect Hinduism from the charms of Islam. (Ref. 139 )

The Dutch arrived on Sri Lanka in 1658, changing the name again to "Ceilon". Life was hard there and it has been reported that rice cooked in water with a little salt, some green leaves and lemon juice passed for a good meal. There were no markets on the island but there were shops. (Ref. 260 , 292 )

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Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
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Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
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Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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