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This module provides the opportunity for students to apply what they've learned about probability to solve a series of problems given a set of data. Students will practice constructing and interpreting contingency tables. This revision of the original module by S. Dean and Dr. B. Illowsky has been modified as follows: the data has been presented here in tabular form.

Student learning objectives

  • The student will practice constructing and interpreting contingency tables.


An article in the New England Journal of Medicine ( by Haiman, Stram, Wilkens, Pike, et al., 1/26/06 ), reported about a study of smokers in California and Hawaii. In one part of the report, the self-reported ethnicity and smoking levels per day were given. Of the people smoking at most 10 cigarettes per day, there were 9886 African Americans, 2745 Native Hawaiians, 12,831 Latinos, 8378 Japanese Americans, and 7650 Whites. Of the people smoking 11-20 cigarettes per day, there were 6514 African Americans, 3062 Native Hawaiians, 4932 Latinos, 10,680 Japanese Americans, and 9877 Whites. Of the people smoking 21-30 cigarettes per day, there were 1671 African Americans, 1419 Native Hawaiians, 1406 Latinos, 4715 Japanese Americans, and 6062 Whites. Of the people smoking at least 31 cigarettes per day, there were 759 African Americans, 788 Native Hawaiians, 800 Latinos, 2305 Japanese Americans, and 3970 Whites.

Complete the table

Verify that the data above is entered into the table correctly.

Smoking levels by ethnicity
Smoking Level African American Native Hawaiian Latino Japanese Americans White TOTALS
1-10 9886 2745 12831 8378 7650 41490
11-20 6514 3062 4932 10680 9877 35065
21-30 1671 1419 1406 4715 6062 15273
31+ 759 788 800 2305 3970 8622
TOTALS 18830 8014 19969 26078 27559 100450

Analyze the data

Suppose that one person from the study is randomly selected.

Find the probability that person smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day.

35,065 100,450

Find the probability that person was Latino.

19,969 100,450

Discussion questions

In words, explain what it means to pick one person from the study and that person is “Japanese American AND smokes 21-30 cigarettes per day.” Also, find the probability.

4,715 100,450

In words, explain what it means to pick one person from the study and that person is “Japanese American OR smokes 21-30 cigarettes per day.” Also, find the probability.

36,636 100,450

In words, explain what it means to pick one person from the study and that person is “Japanese American GIVEN that person smokes 21-30 cigarettes per day.” Also, find the probability.

4715 15,273

Prove that smoking level/day and ethnicity are dependent events.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics: custom version modified by r. bloom. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2010 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10617/1.4
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