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The wheels of a midsize car exert a force of 2100 N backward on the road to accelerate the car in the forward direction. If the force of friction including air resistance is 250 N and the acceleration of the car is 1 . 80 m/s 2 size 12{1 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , what is the mass of the car plus its occupants? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion. For this situation, draw a free-body diagram and write the net force equation.

Calculate the force a 70.0-kg high jumper must exert on the ground to produce an upward acceleration 4.00 times the acceleration due to gravity. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion.

  1. Use Newton’s laws of motion.
    Two forces are acting on an object of mass m: F, shown by an arrow pointing upward, and its weight w, shown by an arrow pointing downward. Acceleration a is represented by a vector arrow pointing upward. The figure depicts the forces acting on a high jumper.
  2. Given : a = 4.00 g = ( 4.00 ) ( 9. 80 m/s 2 ) = 39.2 m/s 2 ; size 12{a=4 "." "00" g= \( 4 "." "00" \) \( 9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } \) ="39" "." 2" m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } " ; "} {} m = 70 . 0 kg size 12{m="70" "." "0 kg"} {} ,

    Find: F size 12{F} .

  3. {} {} F =+ F w = ma , size 12{ Sum {F"=+"F - w= ital "ma"" ,"} } {} so that F = ma + w = ma + mg = m ( a + g ) size 12{F= ital "ma"+w= ital "ma"+ ital "mg"=m \( a+g \) } {} .

    F = ( 70.0 kg ) [ ( 39 . 2 m/s 2 ) + ( 9 . 80 m/s 2 ) ] size 12{F= \( "70" "." 0" kg" \) \[ \( "39" "." "2 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } \) + \( 9 "." "80 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } \) \] } {} = 3. 43 × 10 3 N size 12{ {}= {underline {`3 "." "43" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N"}} } {} . The force exerted by the high-jumper is actually down on the ground, but F size 12{F} is up from the ground and makes him jump.

  4. This result is reasonable, since it is quite possible for a person to exert a force of the magnitude of 10 3 N size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N"} {} .

When landing after a spectacular somersault, a 40.0-kg gymnast decelerates by pushing straight down on the mat. Calculate the force she must exert if her deceleration is 7.00 times the acceleration due to gravity. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion.

A freight train consists of two 8.00 × 10 4 -kg engines and 45 cars with average masses of 5.50 × 10 4 kg . (a) What force must each engine exert backward on the track to accelerate the train at a rate of 5.00 × 10 –2 m/s 2 size 12{5 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{"–2"} } " m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} if the force of friction is 7 . 50 × 10 5 N size 12{7 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " N"} {} , assuming the engines exert identical forces? This is not a large frictional force for such a massive system. Rolling friction for trains is small, and consequently trains are very energy-efficient transportation systems. (b) What is the force in the coupling between the 37th and 38th cars (this is the force each exerts on the other), assuming all cars have the same mass and that friction is evenly distributed among all of the cars and engines?

(a) 4 . 41 × 10 5 N size 12{4 "." "41" times "10" rSup { size 8{5 } } " N"} {}

(b) 1 . 50 × 10 5 N size 12{1 "." "47" times "10" rSup { size 8{5 } } " N"} {}

Commercial airplanes are sometimes pushed out of the passenger loading area by a tractor. (a) An 1800-kg tractor exerts a force of 1 . 75 × 10 4 N size 12{1 "." "75" times "10" rSup { size 8{4 } } " N"} {} backward on the pavement, and the system experiences forces resisting motion that total 2400 N. If the acceleration is 0 . 150 m/s 2 size 12{0 "." "150 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , what is the mass of the airplane? (b) Calculate the force exerted by the tractor on the airplane, assuming 2200 N of the friction is experienced by the airplane. (c) Draw two sketches showing the systems of interest used to solve each part, including the free-body diagrams for each.

A 1100-kg car pulls a boat on a trailer. (a) What total force resists the motion of the car, boat, and trailer, if the car exerts a 1900-N force on the road and produces an acceleration of 0 . 550 m/s 2 size 12{0 "." "550 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ? The mass of the boat plus trailer is 700 kg. (b) What is the force in the hitch between the car and the trailer if 80% of the resisting forces are experienced by the boat and trailer?

(a) 910 N size 12{"910"N} {}

(b) 1 . 11 × 10 3 N size 12{1 "." "11" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " N"} {}

[link] shows Superhero and Trusty Sidekick hanging motionless from a rope. Superhero’s mass is 90.0 kg, while Trusty Sidekick’s is 55.0 kg, and the mass of the rope is negligible. (a) Draw a free-body diagram of the situation showing all forces acting on Superhero, Trusty Sidekick, and the rope. (b) Find the tension in the rope above Superhero. (c) Find the tension in the rope between Superhero and Trusty Sidekick. Indicate on your free-body diagram the system of interest used to solve each part.

Two caped superheroes hang on a rope suspended vertically from a bar.
Superhero and Trusty Sidekick hang motionless on a rope as they try to figure out what to do next. Will the tension be the same everywhere in the rope?

Construct Your Own Problem Consider the tension in an elevator cable during the time the elevator starts from rest and accelerates its load upward to some cruising velocity. Taking the elevator and its load to be the system of interest, draw a free-body diagram. Then calculate the tension in the cable. Among the things to consider are the mass of the elevator and its load, the final velocity, and the time taken to reach that velocity.

Construct Your Own Problem Consider two people pushing a toboggan with four children on it up a snow-covered slope. Construct a problem in which you calculate the acceleration of the toboggan and its load. Include a free-body diagram of the appropriate system of interest as the basis for your analysis. Show vector forces and their components and explain the choice of coordinates. Among the things to be considered are the forces exerted by those pushing, the angle of the slope, and the masses of the toboggan and children.

Unreasonable Results (a) Repeat [link] , but assume an acceleration of 1 . 20 m/s 2 size 12{1 "." "20 m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} is produced. (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premise is unreasonable, and why is it unreasonable?

Unreasonable Results (a) What is the initial acceleration of a rocket that has a mass of 1 . 50 × 10 6 kg size 12{1 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " kg"} {} at takeoff, the engines of which produce a thrust of 2 . 00 × 10 6 N size 12{2 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " N"} {} ? Do not neglect gravity. (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (This result has been unintentionally achieved by several real rockets.) (c) Which premise is unreasonable, or which premises are inconsistent? (You may find it useful to compare this problem to the rocket problem earlier in this section.)

Questions & Answers

how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
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Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
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Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Abe advanced level physics. OpenStax CNX. Jul 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11534/1.3
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