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Introduction

Corporate governance is defined in the Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business Ethics as "concerned with those decisions made by the senior executives of a firm and the impacts of their decisions on various stakeholder groups." (EBE 147) This module turns corporate governance inside-out and looks at it from the perspective of the governed, that is, from the directors, managers, and employees subject to the structures and strategies of corporate governance. Corporate environments function as "moral ecologies," that is, "the somewhat stable, but constantly negotiated set of values, practices, and influences within societies, organizations, professions, and work groups." (Huff et. al., 2008) The thrust of this module is to help you begin to strategize on how to develop sustainable moral careers within different moral ecologies. You will study different kinds of moral ecologies using a taxonomy developed from the research of Michael Davis in Thinking Like an Engineer and Robert Jackall in Moral Mazes . Huff (2008) provides some generic strategies for individuals to pursue within in these organizational environments. But the exercises included in this module will encourage you to expand upon this list. Working through this module will help you to view corporate governance from within from the micro perspective of the individual. Another module will allow you to see corporate governance from the outside from the macro point of view.

What you need to know …

Personality characteristics: the "big five" (plus one)

So much of success in practical and professional ethics lies in anticipating and defusing potential ethical challenges. Called "Preventive Ethics," this approach encourages you to develop the skill of uncovering latent or hidden ethical problems that could erupt into full-blown ethical dilemmas. "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." This module is designed to help you reflect on your personalty, different organizational environments or ecologies, and how your personality fits into these moral ecologies. Your success depends on developing plans for successful moral careers that respond to your personality traits and resist ethical challenges presented by organizational environments.

    Personality characteristics: find your place on the continuum

  1. Extraversion__________________________________________Introversion
  2. Neuroticism___________________________________________Emotional Stability
  3. Conscientiousness_____________________________________Carelessness.
  4. Agreeableness_________________________________________Disagreeableness
  5. Openness (to experience_______________________________Closed (to experience)
  6. Honesty/Humility_____________________________________Dishonesty/Arrogance

This account of personality modifies that presented by Huff et al in "Good computing: a pedagogically focused model of virtue in the practice of computing, parts 1 and 2."

Three moral ecologies

This table and the explanatory material below summarizes materials from studies reported by Davis (Thinking Like an Engineer) and Jackall (Moral Mazes). The reader should be aware that it departs somewhat from the strictly reported results in order to adopt the results to the idea of moral ecology. This later idea was introduced by R. Park in Human Communities: The City and Human Ecology , Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1952.
Summary table
Type / Characteristics Managers and engineers: role and participation Centrality of ethics and values Allocation of praise and blame Withholding information Treatment of dissent and DPOs
Finance-Driven Managers play line role (=make decisions) Engineers provide technical information (=staff role) Ethics and values are side constraints dealt with when they oppose financial considerations Allocated according to hierarchical position: praise goes up and blame goes down. Managers withhold to control and protect secrets. Engineers withhold bad news to avoid blame. "Shoot the messenger!" Dissent = disloyalty and betrayal.
Customer-Driven Managers make decisions on financial matters. Engineers "go to the mat" on engineering matters. Ethics and values are not central but are still important. Praise and blame are fairly allocated based on assigned responsibility and contribution. Information not withheld but gaps arise because or role differences. Differences occur but engineers are expected to advocate their perspective in decision making process.
Quality-Driven Manager and engineering distinction drops out. Interdisciplinary work teams are empowered and responsible Ethics and values are constitutive of the organization's identity. Praise and blame are attributed to group and distributed to individuals within according to contribution. Open consensus process ensures that needed information is integrated into decision making Engineers and managers work toward consensus by gathering more information, continuing the discussion, and (as last resort) postponing the decision until consensus is reached.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles by chemical methods
Zubear
what's the program
Jordan
?
Jordan
what chemical
Jordan
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, The environments of the organization. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11447/1.9
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