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Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write the Lewis symbols for each of the following ions:

(a) As 3–

(b) I

(c) Be 2+

(d) O 2–

(e) Ga 3+

(f) Li +

(g) N 3–

(a) eight electrons:
A Lewis dot diagram shows the symbol for arsenic, A s, surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted three negative sign. ;
(b) eight electrons:
A Lewis dot diagram shows the symbol for iodine, I, surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted negative sign. ;
(c) no electrons
Be 2+ ;
(d) eight electrons:
A Lewis dot diagram shows the symbol for oxygen, O, surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted two negative sign. ;
(e) no electrons
Ga 3+ ;
(f) no electrons
Li + ;
(g) eight electrons:
A Lewis dot diagram shows the symbol for nitrogen, N, surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted three negative sign.

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Many monatomic ions are found in seawater, including the ions formed from the following list of elements. Write the Lewis symbols for the monatomic ions formed from the following elements:

(a) Cl

(b) Na

(c) Mg

(d) Ca

(e) K

(f) Br

(g) Sr

(h) F

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Write the Lewis symbols of the ions in each of the following ionic compounds and the Lewis symbols of the atom from which they are formed:

(a) MgS

(b) Al 2 O 3

(c) GaCl 3

(d) K 2 O

(e) Li 3 N

(f) KF

(a)
Two Lewis structures are shown. The left shows the symbol M g with a superscripted two positive sign while the right shows the symbol S surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted two negative sign. ;
(b)
Two Lewis structures are shown. The left shows the symbol A l with a superscripted three positive sign while the right shows the symbol O surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted two negative sign. ;
(c)
Two Lewis structures are shown. The left shows the symbol G a with a superscripted three positive sign while the right shows the symbol C l surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted negative sign. ;
(d)
Two Lewis structures are shown. The left shows the symbol K with a superscripted positive sign while the right shows the symbol O surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted two negative sign. ;
(e)
Two Lewis structures are shown. The left shows the symbol L i with a superscripted positive sign while the right shows the symbol N surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted three negative sign. ;
(f)
Two Lewis structures are shown. The left shows the symbol K with a superscripted positive sign while the right shows the symbol F surrounded by eight dots and a superscripted negative sign.

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In the Lewis structures listed here, M and X represent various elements in the third period of the periodic table. Write the formula of each compound using the chemical symbols of each element:

(a)
Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted two positive sign. The right shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted two negative sign outside of the brackets.

(b)
Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted three positive sign. The right structure shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted negative sign and a subscripted three both outside of the brackets.

(c)
Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted positive sign and a subscripted two outside of the brackets. The right structure shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted two negative sign outside of the brackets.

(d)
Two Lewis structures are shown side-by-side, each surrounded by brackets. The left structure shows the symbol M with a superscripted three positive sign and a subscripted two outside of the brackets. The right structure shows the symbol X surrounded by four lone pairs of electrons with a superscripted two negative sign and subscripted three both outside of the brackets.

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Write the Lewis structure for the diatomic molecule P 2 , an unstable form of phosphorus found in high-temperature phosphorus vapor.


A Lewis diagram shows two phosphorus atoms triple bonded together each with one lone electron pair.

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Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) H 2

(b) HBr

(c) PCl 3

(d) SF 2

(e) H 2 CCH 2

(f) HNNH

(g) H 2 CNH

(h) NO

(i) N 2

(j) CO

(k) CN

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Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) O 2

(b) H 2 CO

(c) AsF 3

(d) ClNO

(e) SiCl 4

(f) H 3 O +

(g) NH 4 +

(h) BF 4

(i) HCCH

(j) ClCN

(k) C 2 2+

(a)
A Lewis structure shows two oxygen atoms double bonded together, and each has two lone pairs of electrons.
In this case, the Lewis structure is inadequate to depict the fact that experimental studies have shown two unpaired electrons in each oxygen molecule .
(b)
A Lewis structure shows a carbon atom that is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and double bonded to an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electrons. ;
(c)
A Lewis structure shows an arsenic atom single bonded to three fluorine atoms. Each fluorine atom has a lone pair of electrons. ;
(d)
A Lewis structure shows a nitrogen atom with a lone pair of electrons single bonded to a chlorine atom that has three lone pairs of electrons. The nitrogen is also double bonded to an oxygen which has two lone pairs of electrons. ;
(e)
A Lewis structure shows a silicon atom that is single bonded to four chlorine atoms. Each chlorine atom has three lone pairs of electrons. ;
(f)
A Lewis structure shows an oxygen atom with a lone pair of electrons single bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The structure is surrounded by brackets with a superscripted positive sign. ;
(g)
A Lewis structure shows a nitrogen atom single bonded to four hydrogen atoms. The structure is surrounded by brackets with a superscripted positive sign. ;
(h)
A Lewis structure shows a boron atom single bonded to four fluorine atoms. Each fluorine atom has three lone pairs of electrons. The structure is surrounded by brackets with a superscripted negative sign. ;
(i)
A Lewis structure shows two carbon atoms that are triple bonded together. Each carbon is also single bonded to a hydrogen atom. ;
(j)
A Lewis structure shows a carbon atom that is triple bonded to a nitrogen atom that has one lone pair of electrons. The carbon is also single bonded to a chlorine atom that has three lone pairs of electrons. ;
(k)
A Lewis structure shows two carbon atoms joined with a triple bond. A superscripted 2 positive sign lies to the right of the second carbon.

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Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) ClF 3

(b) PCl 5

(c) BF 3

(d) PF 6

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Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) SeF 6

(b) XeF 4

(c) SeCl 3 +

(d) Cl 2 BBCl 2 (contains a B–B bond)

(a) SeF 6 :
A Lewis structure shows a selenium atom single bonded to six fluorine atoms, each with three lone pairs of electrons. ;
(b) XeF 4 :
A Lewis structure shows a xenon atom with two lone pairs of electrons. It is single bonded to four fluorine atoms each with three lone pairs of electrons. ;
(c) SeCl 3 + :
A Lewis structure shows a selenium atom with one lone pair of electrons single bonded to three chlorine atoms each with three lone pairs of electrons. The whole structure is surrounded by brackets. ;
(d) Cl 2 BBCl 2 :
A Lewis structure shows two boron atoms that are single bonded together. Each is also single bonded to two chlorine atoms that both have three lone pairs of electrons.

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Write Lewis structures for:

(a) PO 4 3−

(b) ICl 4

(c) SO 3 2−

(d) HONO

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Correct the following statement: “The bonds in solid PbCl 2 are ionic; the bond in a HCl molecule is covalent. Thus, all of the valence electrons in PbCl 2 are located on the Cl ions, and all of the valence electrons in a HCl molecule are shared between the H and Cl atoms.”

Two valence electrons per Pb atom are transferred to Cl atoms; the resulting Pb 2+ ion has a 6 s 2 valence shell configuration. Two of the valence electrons in the HCl molecule are shared, and the other six are located on the Cl atom as lone pairs of electrons.

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Write Lewis structures for the following molecules or ions:

(a) SbH 3

(b) XeF 2

(c) Se 8 (a cyclic molecule with a ring of eight Se atoms)

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Methanol, H 3 COH, is used as the fuel in some race cars. Ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, is used extensively as motor fuel in Brazil. Both methanol and ethanol produce CO 2 and H 2 O when they burn. Write the chemical equations for these combustion reactions using Lewis structures instead of chemical formulas.

Two reactions are shown using Lewis structures. The top reaction shows a carbon atom, single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and single bonded to an oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The oxygen atom is also bonded to a hydrogen atom. This is followed by a plus sign and the number one point five, followed by two oxygen atoms bonded together with a double bond and each with two lone pairs of electrons. A right-facing arrow leads to a carbon atom that is double bonded to two oxygen atoms, each of which has two lone pairs of electrons. This structure is followed by a plus sign, a number two, and a structure made up of an oxygen with two lone pairs of electrons single bonded to two hydrogen atoms. The bottom reaction shows a carbon atom, single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and single bonded to another carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom with two lone pairs of electrons. The oxygen atom is also bonded to a hydrogen atom. This is followed by a plus sign and the number three, followed by two oxygen atoms bonded together with a double bond. Each oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electrons. A right-facing arrow leads to a number two and a carbon atom that is double bonded to two oxygen atoms, each of which has two lone pairs of electrons. This structure is followed by a plus sign, a number three, and a structure made up of an oxygen with two lone pairs of electrons single bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
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Many planets in our solar system contain organic chemicals including methane (CH 4 ) and traces of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propyne (H 3 CCCH), and diacetylene (HCCCCH). Write the Lewis structures for each of these molecules.

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Carbon tetrachloride was formerly used in fire extinguishers for electrical fires. It is no longer used for this purpose because of the formation of the toxic gas phosgene, Cl 2 CO. Write the Lewis structures for carbon tetrachloride and phosgene.

 
Two Lewis structures are shown. The left depicts a carbon atom single bonded to four chlorine atoms, each with three lone pairs of electrons. The right shows a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom that has two lone pairs of electrons. The carbon atom is also single bonded to two chlorine atoms, each of which has three lone pairs of electrons.

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Identify the atoms that correspond to each of the following electron configurations. Then, write the Lewis symbol for the common ion formed from each atom:

(a) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 5

(b) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2

(c) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10

(d) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10 4 p 4

(e) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10 4 p 1

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The arrangement of atoms in several biologically important molecules is given here. Complete the Lewis structures of these molecules by adding multiple bonds and lone pairs. Do not add any more atoms.

(a) the amino acid serine:

A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom and two other carbon atoms. One of these carbon atoms is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The other carbon atom is single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(b) urea:

A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and another nitrogen atom. That nitrogen atom is then single bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

(c) pyruvic acid:

A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and another carbon atom. The second carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and a third carbon atom. This carbon is then single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(d) uracil:

A Lewis hexagonal ring structure is shown. From the top of the ring (moving clockwise), three carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, a carbon atom, and a nitrogen atom are single bonded to each another. The top carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom. The second and third carbons and the nitrogen atom are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The next carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom, and the last nitrogen atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(e) carbonic acid:

A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three oxygen atoms. Two of those oxygen atoms are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom.

(a)
A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to a hydrogen atom and two other carbon atoms. One of these carbon atoms is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The other carbon is single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is bonded to a hydrogen atom. The oxygen atoms have two lone pairs of electron dots, and the nitrogen atom has one lone pair of electron dots. ;
(b)
A Lewis structure is shown. A nitrogen atom is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and one nitrogen atom. That nitrogen atom is then single bonded to two hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electron dots, and the nitrogen atoms have one lone pair of electron dots each. ;
(c)
A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and a carbon atom. The carbon atom is single bonded to an oxygen atom and a third carbon atom. This carbon is then single bonded to two oxygen atoms, one of which is single bonded to a hydrogen atom. Each oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electron dots. ;
(d)
A Lewis hexagonal ring structure is shown. From the top of the ring, three carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom are single bonded to one another. The top carbon is single bonded to an oxygen, the second and third carbons and the nitrogen atom are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The next carbon is single bonded to an oxygen atom and the last nitrogen is single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The oxygen atoms have two lone pairs of electron dots, and the nitrogen atoms have one lone pair of electron dots. ;
(e)
A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three oxygen atoms. Two of those oxygen atoms are each single bonded to a hydrogen atom. Each oxygen atom has two lone pairs of electron dots.

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A compound with a molar mass of about 28 g/mol contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Write the Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound.

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A compound with a molar mass of about 42 g/mol contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Write the Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound.

 
A Lewis structure is shown. A carbon atom is single bonded to three hydrogen atoms and another carbon atom. The second carbon atom is double bonded to another carbon atom and single bonded to a hydrogen atom. The last carbon is single bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

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Two arrangements of atoms are possible for a compound with a molar mass of about 45 g/mol that contains 52.2% C, 13.1% H, and 34.7% O by mass. Write the Lewis structures for the two molecules.

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How are single, double, and triple bonds similar? How do they differ?

Each bond includes a sharing of electrons between atoms. Two electrons are shared in a single bond; four electrons are shared in a double bond; and six electrons are shared in a triple bond.

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Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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how do you find theWhat are the wavelengths and energies per photon of two lines
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The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
razzyd Reply
A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
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4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
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Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
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Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
Tarun Reply
Practice Key Terms 9

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Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
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