# 3.5 Lewis symbols and structures  (Page 6/15)

 Page 6 / 15

## Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write the Lewis symbols for each of the following ions:

(a) As 3–

(b) I

(c) Be 2+

(d) O 2–

(e) Ga 3+

(f) Li +

(g) N 3–

(a) eight electrons:
;
(b) eight electrons:
;
(c) no electrons
Be 2+ ;
(d) eight electrons:
;
(e) no electrons
Ga 3+ ;
(f) no electrons
Li + ;
(g) eight electrons:

Many monatomic ions are found in seawater, including the ions formed from the following list of elements. Write the Lewis symbols for the monatomic ions formed from the following elements:

(a) Cl

(b) Na

(c) Mg

(d) Ca

(e) K

(f) Br

(g) Sr

(h) F

Write the Lewis symbols of the ions in each of the following ionic compounds and the Lewis symbols of the atom from which they are formed:

(a) MgS

(b) Al 2 O 3

(c) GaCl 3

(d) K 2 O

(e) Li 3 N

(f) KF

(a)
;
(b)
;
(c)
;
(d)
;
(e)
;
(f)

In the Lewis structures listed here, M and X represent various elements in the third period of the periodic table. Write the formula of each compound using the chemical symbols of each element:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Write the Lewis structure for the diatomic molecule P 2 , an unstable form of phosphorus found in high-temperature phosphorus vapor.

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) H 2

(b) HBr

(c) PCl 3

(d) SF 2

(e) H 2 CCH 2

(f) HNNH

(g) H 2 CNH

(h) NO

(i) N 2

(j) CO

(k) CN

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) O 2

(b) H 2 CO

(c) AsF 3

(d) ClNO

(e) SiCl 4

(f) H 3 O +

(g) ${\text{NH}}_{4}{}^{+}$

(h) ${\text{BF}}_{4}{}^{\text{−}}$

(i) HCCH

(j) ClCN

(k) ${\text{C}}_{2}{}^{\text{2+}}$

(a)

In this case, the Lewis structure is inadequate to depict the fact that experimental studies have shown two unpaired electrons in each oxygen molecule .
(b)
;
(c)
;
(d)
;
(e)
;
(f)
;
(g)
;
(h)
;
(i)
;
(j)
;
(k)

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) ClF 3

(b) PCl 5

(c) BF 3

(d) ${\text{PF}}_{6}{}^{\text{−}}$

Write Lewis structures for the following:

(a) SeF 6

(b) XeF 4

(c) ${\text{SeCl}}_{3}{}^{+}$

(d) Cl 2 BBCl 2 (contains a B–B bond)

(a) SeF 6 :
;
(b) XeF 4 :
;
(c) ${\text{SeCl}}_{3}{}^{\text{+}}\text{:}$
;
(d) Cl 2 BBCl 2 :

Write Lewis structures for:

(a) ${\text{PO}}_{4}{}^{\text{3−}}$

(b) ${\text{ICl}}_{4}{}^{\text{−}}$

(c) ${\text{SO}}_{3}{}^{\text{2−}}$

(d) HONO

Correct the following statement: “The bonds in solid PbCl 2 are ionic; the bond in a HCl molecule is covalent. Thus, all of the valence electrons in PbCl 2 are located on the Cl ions, and all of the valence electrons in a HCl molecule are shared between the H and Cl atoms.”

Two valence electrons per Pb atom are transferred to Cl atoms; the resulting Pb 2+ ion has a 6 s 2 valence shell configuration. Two of the valence electrons in the HCl molecule are shared, and the other six are located on the Cl atom as lone pairs of electrons.

Write Lewis structures for the following molecules or ions:

(a) SbH 3

(b) XeF 2

(c) Se 8 (a cyclic molecule with a ring of eight Se atoms)

Methanol, H 3 COH, is used as the fuel in some race cars. Ethanol, C 2 H 5 OH, is used extensively as motor fuel in Brazil. Both methanol and ethanol produce CO 2 and H 2 O when they burn. Write the chemical equations for these combustion reactions using Lewis structures instead of chemical formulas.

Many planets in our solar system contain organic chemicals including methane (CH 4 ) and traces of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propyne (H 3 CCCH), and diacetylene (HCCCCH). Write the Lewis structures for each of these molecules.

Carbon tetrachloride was formerly used in fire extinguishers for electrical fires. It is no longer used for this purpose because of the formation of the toxic gas phosgene, Cl 2 CO. Write the Lewis structures for carbon tetrachloride and phosgene.

Identify the atoms that correspond to each of the following electron configurations. Then, write the Lewis symbol for the common ion formed from each atom:

(a) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 5

(b) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2

(c) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10

(d) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10 4 p 4

(e) 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 2 3 p 6 4 s 2 3 d 10 4 p 1

The arrangement of atoms in several biologically important molecules is given here. Complete the Lewis structures of these molecules by adding multiple bonds and lone pairs. Do not add any more atoms.

(a) the amino acid serine:

(b) urea:

(c) pyruvic acid:

(d) uracil:

(e) carbonic acid:

(a)
;
(b)
;
(c)
;
(d)
;
(e)

A compound with a molar mass of about 28 g/mol contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Write the Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound.

A compound with a molar mass of about 42 g/mol contains 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen by mass. Write the Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound.

Two arrangements of atoms are possible for a compound with a molar mass of about 45 g/mol that contains 52.2% C, 13.1% H, and 34.7% O by mass. Write the Lewis structures for the two molecules.

How are single, double, and triple bonds similar? How do they differ?

Each bond includes a sharing of electrons between atoms. Two electrons are shared in a single bond; four electrons are shared in a double bond; and six electrons are shared in a triple bond.

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
what is nano technology
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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