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The photosphere has a mosaic of bright spots called granulations plus sporadically appearing darker patches called SUNSPOTS. At the granulations areas the photosphere is 1000 to 2000 km thick.

The average temperature of the photosphere is 6400 degree centigrade but at the Sun-spot it is cooler at 2,000 to 3,000 degree. Here magnetic fields are emanating which are 25,000 times stronger than earth magnetic field. Sun Spots appear and disappear. They are surrounded by clouds of bright, burning gas called faculae. Sun Spots number and sizes are indicative of Sun’s Solar Activity. Larger sizes and more numerous number is indicative of Sun’s Activity. The Sizes and number wane and wax in cycles of 11 years. This is known as 11 years cycle of Sun Activity. By studying the sun spot, the rate of rotation of Sun has been determined to be 27 days.


There is a pink fringe several thousand kilometers broad, around the solar disc. This Pink fringe is called the chromospheres. As the solar activity increases, magnificent prominences shoot out from this layer. They look like curls or bushes. These are Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). In these coronal mass ejections the sun blasts billion of tons of plasma blob material at very high speed. These prominences are sculpted by the magnetic field. The gas is ejected and re-circulated back at a high speed of 1000 km/sec. Sometimes this velocity is as high as 500,000km/sec.

Sudden explosions of Solar Atmospheres release energy equivalent to billions of Atomic Bombs within few minutes. The abrupt rearrangement of solar magnetic field , which arch upward from the surface of the sun, lead to this sudden release of energy.CME are accompanied with burst of X-Rays. Solar flares and different aspects of Space Weather involve the interplay of magnetic field and plasma.

The exact physics has been unraveled by the study of Yohkoh satellites&Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager(RHESSI). Solar flares erupt from Sun Spots. At Sun Spots the solar magnetic fields is much stronger. It is the magnetostatic energy of these powerful magnetic fields which are unleashed during solar flares as thermal energy. Oppositely directed magnetic field lines come together and partially annihilate and rearrange. This is known as RECONNECT. This magnetic reconnection is responsible for the solar flare and CME. Invisible Magnetic Loops are emanating and terminating at the sun spots. These magnetic loops trap hot plasma. Initially this plasma is at several million Kelvin temperature. Hot charged particles spiral around the magnetic lines of force to and fro between the two foot points. The acceleration and deaccleration lead to synchrotron radiation in form of extreme UV and hard X-ray. In the process plasma heats up to 10 to 40 million Kelvin. As the magnetic reconnect takes place, gigantic solar flares erupt and CME occurs. As the sun spot increases , number of magnetic loops increase and hence the magnetic reconnect becomes more numerous leading gigantic solar storms.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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