<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
Linear Regression and Correlation: The Regression Equation is a part of Collaborative Statistics collection (col10522) by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean. Contributions from Roberta Bloom include instructions for finding and graphing the regression equation and scatterplot using the LinRegTTest on the TI-83,83+,84+ calculators.

Data rarely fit a straight line exactly. Usually, you must be satisfied with rough predictions. Typically, you have a set of data whose scatter plot appears to "fit" a straight line. This is called a Line of Best Fit or Least Squares Line .

Optional collaborative classroom activity

If you know a person's pinky (smallest) finger length, do you think you could predict that person's height? Collect data from your class (pinky finger length, in inches). Theindependent variable, x , is pinky finger length and the dependent variable, y , is height.

For each set of data, plot the points on graph paper. Make your graph big enough and use a ruler . Then "by eye" draw a line that appears to "fit" the data. For your line, pick two convenient points and use them to find the slope of the line. Find the y-intercept ofthe line by extending your lines so they cross the y-axis. Using the slopes and the y-intercepts, write your equation of "best fit". Do you think everyone will have the sameequation? Why or why not?

Using your equation, what is the predicted height for a pinky length of 2.5 inches?

A random sample of 11 statistics students produced the following data where x is the third exam score, out of 80, and y is the final exam score, out of 200. Can you predict the final exam score of a random student if you know the third exam score?

x (third exam score) y (final exam score)
65 175
67 133
71 185
71 163
66 126
75 198
67 153
70 163
71 159
69 151
69 159
Table showing the scores on the final exam based on scores from the third exam.
Scatterplot of exam scores with the third exam score on the x-axis and the final exam score on the y-axis.
Scatter plot showing the scores on the final exam based on scores from the third exam.

The third exam score, x , is the independent variable and the final exam score, y , is the dependent variable. We will plot a regression line that best "fits" the data. If each of youwere to fit a line "by eye", you would draw different lines. We can use what is called a least-squares regression line to obtain the best fit line.

Consider the following diagram. Each point of data is of the the form ( x , y ) and each point of the line of best fit using least-squares linear regression has the form ( x , y ^ ) .

The y ^ is read "y hat" and is the estimated value of y . It is the value of y obtained using the regression line. It is not generally equal to y from data.

Scatterplot of the exam scores with a line of best fit tying in the relationship between the third exam and final exam scores. A specific point on the line, specific data point, and the distance between these two points are used in order to show an example of how to compute the sum of squared errors in order to find the points on the line of best fit.

The term y 0 - y ^ 0 = ε 0 is called the "error" or residual . It is not an error in the sense of a mistake. The absolute value of a residual measures the vertical distance between the actual value of y and the estimated value of y . In other words, it measures the vertical distance between the actual data point and the predicted point on the line.

If the observed data point lies above the line, the residual is positive, and the line underestimates the actual data value for y . If the observed data point lies below the line, the residual is negative, and the line overestimates that actual data value for y .

In the diagram above, y 0 - y ^ 0 = ε 0 is the residual for the point shown. Here the point lies above the line and the residual is positive.

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
QuizOver.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics (custom online version modified by t. short). OpenStax CNX. Jul 15, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11476/1.5
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Collaborative statistics (custom online version modified by t. short)' conversation and receive update notifications?