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Geskiedenis

Graad 4

Hoe vervoer die mensdom gedien het

Module 11

Die ontwikkeling van padvervoer tot vandag

Mettertyd het dit nodig geword om in en om Mooimeisiesfontein goeie paaie vir die baie karre en waens te bou.

Aktiwiteit 1

Om bronne te gebruik [lu 1.2]

Dis hoe Mooimeisiesfontein se hoofstraat in 1930 gelyk het . . .

A)ondersoek meegaande skets en beantwoord die volgende vrae oor die prente hierbo:

  1. Hoeveel verskillende voertuie sien jy?

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Watter voertuie word nog in jou omgewing gebruik?.......................................

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Hoekom was dit makliker vir perde om ‘n trein op ‘n spoor as in die pad te trek?

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Wat het die verskillende voertuie laat beweeg?

.......................................................................................................................

  1. Hoe is paaie destyds gebou?

.....................................................................................................................

  1. Watter maniere is gebruik om berge en riviere oor te steek?

.....................................................................................................................

  1. Watter toerusting word vandag gebruik om paaie in jou omgewing te bou?

......................................................................................................................

Interessante feite!

In 1885 het die Duitser, Carl Benz, ‘n motor met ‘n petrol-enjin gebou. Dit kon ‘n topspoed van omtrent 18 km per uur behaal! Oupa sê die eerste motor het eers in 1897 in ons land aangekom. Toe is motors nie op groot skaal in fabrieke gebou nie. Elkeen is spesiaal vir ‘n ryk persoon gebou. Mettertyd is goedkoper motors, soos oupa se Model T-Ford, egter in fabrieke gebou.

Aktiwiteit 2

Om tussen verskillende tydperke [lu 2.3]

A)bestudeer meegaande skets. gesels nou met mekaar hoe vervoer daagliks ontwikkel.

Hoekom is die motor so ‘n gerieflike vervoermiddel?

Hoekom sal dit beter wees as meer mense met busse werk toe gaan?

Paaie word deesdae al hoe meer van t . . . .. r of b . . . . .n gebou.

Wat noem ons goeie paaie wat tussen groot stede gebou word (n . . . . . . e paaie)?

Mooimeisiesfontein vandag

B)klasuitstappie vir julle!

  • Vra jou onderwyser om julle na ‘n besige pad of straat te vat sodat julle ‘n verkeerstelling kan doen. Soos jy reeds weet, verskil vervoer tydens verskillende tydperke. Stel nou vas of dit op verskillende tye van die dag ook verskil.
  • Trek ‘n tabel in jou skryfboek en vul dan die nodige inligting in.
  • Werk ‘n uur lank in pare. Tel die voertuie wat in al twee rigtings verby ‘n sekere punt beweeg.

Rapporteer in die klas oor die volgende:

- Gedurende watter tyd ry die meeste mense werk toe en terug?

- Ons noem sulke verkeer s . . . . . sverkeer.

- Watter soort voertuie word die meeste gebruik op die verskillende tye. Waarom?

C)debat!

  • Watter een, motorfietse of minibusse, word meer in spitstyd gebruik?

Assessering

Leeruitkoms 1: geskiedkundige ondersoek

Die leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om die verlede en die hede te ondersoek.

Assesseringstandaard

Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder

1.2 vrae beantwoord: inligting uit bronne gebruik om vrae te beantwoord.

Leeruitkoms 2: geskiedkundige kennis en begrip

Die leerder is in staat om geskiedkundige kennis en begrip te toon.

Assesseringstandaard

Dis duidelik wanneer die leerder

  • ooreenkomste en verskille: ooreenkomste en verskille tussen die verlede en hede identifiseer oor hoe dinge gedoen is binne ‘n bepaalde konteks.

Memorandum

a). (1) 5

  1. Eie antwoorde
  2. Spoorlyn was veel meer glad en gelyk as destydse paaie.
  1. Laat leerders eie antwoorde gee. Die trem loop op ysterspore – getrek deur perde. (SA se eerste trem is in 1863 in gebruik geneem tussen Kaapstad en Groenpunt. Vrouens het binne-in gesit en mans bo-op.)

Fietse het in die laat 1800’s in SA gewild geraak – sonder vere, buitebande, ratte.

  1. In die 1600’s en 1700’s was paaie in SA net wielspore – en ook geen brûe nie. Mense het gestap, op perde gery of ossewaens gebruik. Teen 1820 was die hoofroete in SA tussen Kaapstad en Grahamstad ná die koms van die Setlaars. Gevangenes is dikwels gebruik om paaie te bou. Lees die verhaal van Andrew Bain, SA se mees bekende vroeëre padbouer.
  2. Laat leerders self antwoorde uitdink.
  1. Sedert 1935 kry baie gruispaaie ‘n oppervlak van teer of sement. Dit is veronderstel om ongeveer 20 jaar te hou.
  2. Teer of baksteen, nasionale paaie

b) Spitsverkeer

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geskiedenis graad 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 17, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11090/1.1
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