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Central and northern asia

Back to Central and Northern Asia: 0 to A.D. 100

In far eastern and northern Asia Mongolian nomads, perhaps with some admixture of Turkish, Europoid elements, all of which are traditionally considered as ancestors of the Huns, lived as harsh, bow-legged men with large heads and massive chests which apparently helped them to withstand the blazing days and freezing nights of the Gobi desert. Their chief meat was mutton, but occasionally they ate beef, horse or camel and the humps of the latter were considered a great delicacy. In general, in the wilder areas the cattle did not adapt well and camels were not sufficiently productive, having only a single foal every three years. The yak was used for milk, rather than fundamentally for meat. (Ref. 211 )

As pack animals the horse and Bactrian camel were the means of opening the great commercial routes across the central Asian steppe, with many change-over points along the way. Stone Tower, somewhere north of the Pamirs, was the great meeting place where exquisite Chinese silks and exotic spices were bartered for Roman glassware, pottery, asbestos cloth, coral beads, gems, grape wine for the emperor of China, silver and gold.

The drain of gold from the West was fantastic in amount. In the desert at the north of the Tarim Basin at present day Turpan (or Turfan) about 950 underground canals called "Karez" were constructed to bring irrigation water from the Tian Shan (Celestial Mountains) to the desert, where a melon and grape growing oasis was thus developed. The Han Chinese ruled Turpan at this time, but through the centuries it was controlled by numerous Central Asian peoples. The "blue-print" for such an underground water system was brought along the silk route from Persia, where the canals were called "Qanats". (Ref. 211 , 73 )

As noted in the last chapter, the Tocharians and other Yue-chi tribes had combined to create the vast Kushan Empire which in this century covered almost the entire central Asian land mass in its southern portion. Their greatest king, Kanishka, ruled this empire from India, and more details will be written in that section of this chapter. On the Turkistan frontier with China, Mongol Hsiung-nu, Tibetans and other tribesmen lived side by side with the Chinese, who still ruled at least the most eastern portion of this area, although their protectorate over the Tarim Basin had lapsed in A.D. 106. (Ref. 136 )

to Central and Northern Asia: A.D. 201 to 300

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Questions & Answers

Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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