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Water has a larger heat retention capacity than the land has. The water, however, takes longer to heat during the day. Therefore the land reaches higher day temperatures than the water. The sea then has a “cool” influence from the sea to the land. During the night the land cools down much faster than the water, which then causes a “warm” influence from the sea to the land.

The result is that places along the coast or large water masses, experience a moderate temperature. The margin between maximum and minimum is not very big.

Hot water evaporates faster and better than cold water. There is more evaporation above a warm sea current. This results in a higher precipitation in areas that border on warm sea currents.


In grade 5 we learnt that the escarpment diverts the rain bearing winds and clouds away from the interior. Mountains also have a sunny side and a shady side. The sunny sides have higher average temperatures, and the shady sides have lower average temperatures.

2. Climate and vegetation

  • As climate exerts an effect on vegetation, we find that both vegetation and human activities are relatively similar over large areas. Where one region changes into another, we find that a gradual change occurs over a large area. Such an area is referred to as a transitional/intermediate zone . Forests do not suddenly change to grasslands, but the occurrence of trees gradually decreases and grasslands increase. The map on page 16 shows the different rainfall and vegetation regions of the world. Remember, there are no specific boundaries. Maps will therefore differ slightly from one another.
  • The interaction between plants, animals, soil and climate within a demarcated area develops an ecological system, which we simply call an ecosystem. (Ecosystem = a selection of plants and animals in their own environment.)
  • The largest ecosystems that have developed on the earth are known as biomes . (Biome = a large area that houses similar plants and animals and relates to the distribution of climatic regions).

Activity 2:

To study climatic information

[lo 1.2, 1.3, 1.5]

Study the climatic information in the table on page 15 and answer the following questions:

  • Determine the longitudinal and latitudinal position of each of these two cities. Which city is closest to the Equator?
  • In which countries are the cities situated?
  • Select a suitable scale and represent the climatological information graphically. Use a line graph to illustrate the temperature and a bar graph to illustrate the rainfall.
  • Which city experiences the greatest temperature fluctuations? How does this compare with where you live?
  • Explain why the temperatures are so high and the temperature variations so little for these two cities.
  • During which months do these cities experience the highest temperatures and have the highest rainfall? How does this compare with where you live?

Table 1: Climatic information for Belèm and Singapore

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sept Oct. Nov. Dec.
BelèmTemperature ( o C) 25,6 25 25,6 25,6 26,1 26,1 25,6 21,1 21,1 21,1 26,7 26,1
Rainfall (mm) 318 359 359 320 259 170 149 115 89 86 66 155
SingaporeTemperature ( o C) 26,7 26,7 27,2 27,8 27,2 27,2 27,2 27,2 27,2 27,2 27,2 26,7
Rainfall (mm) 252 168 188 193 170 172 172 201 172 206 252 269


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRYThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment standards(ASe)
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies sources of information, including simple statistics, to help answer the question about a social or environmental issue or problem;
  • selects and records relevant information from sources for specific purposes (including recording and observing in the field);
  • reports on enquiries, through discussion, debate, structured writing, graphs, tables, maps and diagrams.
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to demonstrate an environmental knowledge and understanding.
We know this when the learner:
  • explains why more people live in some places than others;
  • identifies how access to different kinds of resources influences development in different places;
  • describes some ways in which society has changed the environment.
LO 3
EXPLORING ISSUESThe learner will be able to make informed decisions about social and environmental issues and problems.
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies inequalities within and between societies;
  • analyses some of the factors that lead toward social and environmental inequality at different geographical scales and in different places;
  • evaluates actions that lead to the sharing of resources and reducing poverty in a particular context.


Activity 1:

  • Thabana Ntlenjana – 3 482 m
  • S 27.20 E

Activity 2:

  • Belèm : 1.27 S 48.29 W
  • Singapore : 1.17 N 103.51 E
  • Belèm : Brasil
  • Singapore : Malaysia
  • Belèm
  • Intense isolation of the sun throughout the year. Every day is approximately 12 hours long. Angle of incidence of the rays of the sun is vertical or close to it throughout the year.
  • Belèm : Temperature – November : Rain – February
  • Singapore : Temperature – April : Rain – December

Questions & Answers

find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
I'm interested in Nanotube
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 07, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11000/1.1
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