# 22.9 Magnetic fields produced by currents: ampere’s law  (Page 3/12)

 Page 3 / 12

## Magnetic field produced by a current-carrying solenoid

A solenoid    is a long coil of wire (with many turns or loops, as opposed to a flat loop). Because of its shape, the field inside a solenoid can be very uniform, and also very strong. The field just outside the coils is nearly zero. [link] shows how the field looks and how its direction is given by RHR-2.

The magnetic field inside of a current-carrying solenoid is very uniform in direction and magnitude. Only near the ends does it begin to weaken and change direction. The field outside has similar complexities to flat loops and bar magnets, but the magnetic field strength inside a solenoid    is simply

$B={\mu }_{0}\text{nI}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\text{inside a solenoid}\right),$

where $n$ is the number of loops per unit length of the solenoid $\left(n=N/l$ , with $N$ being the number of loops and $l$ the length). Note that $B$ is the field strength anywhere in the uniform region of the interior and not just at the center. Large uniform fields spread over a large volume are possible with solenoids, as [link] implies.

## Calculating field strength inside a solenoid

What is the field inside a 2.00-m-long solenoid that has 2000 loops and carries a 1600-A current?

Strategy

To find the field strength inside a solenoid, we use $B={\mu }_{0}\text{nI}$ . First, we note the number of loops per unit length is

$n=\frac{N}{l}=\frac{\text{2000}}{2.00 m}=\text{1000}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{m}}^{-1}=\text{10}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{\text{cm}}^{-1}\text{.}$

Solution

Substituting known values gives

$\begin{array}{lll}B& =& {\mu }_{0}\text{nI}=\left(4\pi ×{\text{10}}^{-7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}T\cdot \text{m/A}\right)\left(\text{1000}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}{m}^{-1}\right)\left(\text{1600 A}\right)\\ & =& 2\text{.01 T.}\end{array}$

Discussion

This is a large field strength that could be established over a large-diameter solenoid, such as in medical uses of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The very large current is an indication that the fields of this strength are not easily achieved, however. Such a large current through 1000 loops squeezed into a meter’s length would produce significant heating. Higher currents can be achieved by using superconducting wires, although this is expensive. There is an upper limit to the current, since the superconducting state is disrupted by very large magnetic fields.

There are interesting variations of the flat coil and solenoid. For example, the toroidal coil used to confine the reactive particles in tokamaks is much like a solenoid bent into a circle. The field inside a toroid is very strong but circular. Charged particles travel in circles, following the field lines, and collide with one another, perhaps inducing fusion. But the charged particles do not cross field lines and escape the toroid. A whole range of coil shapes are used to produce all sorts of magnetic field shapes. Adding ferromagnetic materials produces greater field strengths and can have a significant effect on the shape of the field. Ferromagnetic materials tend to trap magnetic fields (the field lines bend into the ferromagnetic material, leaving weaker fields outside it) and are used as shields for devices that are adversely affected by magnetic fields, including the Earth’s magnetic field.

## Phet explorations: generator

Generate electricity with a bar magnet! Discover the physics behind the phenomena by exploring magnets and how you can use them to make a bulb light.

## Section summary

• The strength of the magnetic field created by current in a long straight wire is given by
$B=\frac{{\mu }_{0}I}{2\mathrm{\pi r}}\left(\text{long straight wire}\right),$
where $I$ is the current, $r$ is the shortest distance to the wire, and the constant ${\mu }_{0}=4\pi \phantom{\rule{0.15em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.15em}{0ex}}{\text{10}}^{-7}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{T}\cdot \text{m/A}$ is the permeability of free space.
• The direction of the magnetic field created by a long straight wire is given by right hand rule 2 (RHR-2): Point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of current, and the fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field loops created by it.
• The magnetic field created by current following any path is the sum (or integral) of the fields due to segments along the path (magnitude and direction as for a straight wire), resulting in a general relationship between current and field known as Ampere’s law.
• The magnetic field strength at the center of a circular loop is given by
$B=\frac{{\mu }_{0}I}{2R}\text{}\left(\text{at center of loop}\right),$
where $R$ is the radius of the loop. This equation becomes $B={\mu }_{0}\text{nI}/\left(2R\right)$ for a flat coil of $N$ loops. RHR-2 gives the direction of the field about the loop. A long coil is called a solenoid.
• The magnetic field strength inside a solenoid is
$B={\mu }_{0}\text{nI}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\text{inside a solenoid}\right),$
where $n$ is the number of loops per unit length of the solenoid. The field inside is very uniform in magnitude and direction.

## Conceptual questions

Make a drawing and use RHR-2 to find the direction of the magnetic field of a current loop in a motor (such as in [link] ). Then show that the direction of the torque on the loop is the same as produced by like poles repelling and unlike poles attracting.

Why is there no 2nd harmonic in the classical electron orbit?
how to reform magnet after been demagneted
A petrol engine has a output of 20 kilowatts and uses 4.5 kg of fuel for each hour of running. The energy given out when 1 kg of petrol is burnt is 4.8 × 10 to the power of 7 Joules. a) What is the energy output of the engine every hour? b) What is the energy input of the engine every hour?
what is the error during taking work done of a body..
what kind of error do you think? and work is held by which force?
Daniela
I am now in this group
smart
theory,laws,principles and what-a-view are not defined. why? you
A simple pendulum is used in a physics laboratory experiment to obtain an experimental value for the gravitational acceleration, g . A student measures the length of the pendulum to be 0.510 meters, displaces it 10 o from the equilibrium position, and releases it. Using a s
so what question are you passing across... sir?
Olalekan
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed?
54 joule
babar
how?
rakesh
Reduce that two body problem into one body problem. Apply potential and k. E formula to get total energy of the system
rakesh
i dont think dere is any potential energy... by d virtue of no height present
Olalekan
there is compressed energy,dats only potential energy na?
rakesh
yes.. but... how will u approach that question without The Height in the question?
Olalekan
Can you explain how you get 54J?
Emmanuel
Because mine is 36J
Emmanuel
got 36J too
Douglas
OK the answer is 54J Babar is correct
Emmanuel
Conservation of Momentum
Emmanuel
woow i see.. can you give the formula for this
joshua
Two masses of 2 kg and 4 kg are held with a compressed spring between them. If the masses are released, the spring will push them away from each other. If the smaller mass moves off with a velocity of 6m/s, what is the stored energy in the spring when it is compressed? Asume there is no external force.
Emmanuel
Inuwa
By using the Quotient Rule dy/dx = 3y/(x +y)²
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Emmanuel
may be by using MC^2=MC^2 and Total energy=kinetic energy +potential energy so 1st find kinetic energy and den find potential energy which is stored energy
rakesh
i think i m correct
rakesh
But how?
Emmanuel
3y/(x+y)²
Douglas
what's the big bang?
yes what is it?
LamaBbake
it is the explanation of how the universe began
Zainab
yes
Ana
explain
Chinagorom
in
Chinagorom
it is a theory on how the universe began. to understand more I would suggest researching the topic online.
david
thanks guys
kwame
if a force of 12N is applied to load of 200g what us the work done
We can seek accelation first
Nancy
we are given f=12 m=200g which is 0.2kg now from 2nd law of newton a= f/m=60m/s*2 work done=force applied x displacement cos (theta) w= 12x60 =720nm/s*2
Mudang
this very interesting question very complicated for me, í need urgent help. 1,two buses A and B travel along the same road in the same direction from Harper city (asume They both started from the same point) to Monrovia. if bus A maintains a Speedy of 60km/h and bus B a Speedy of 75km/h, how many
mohammed
hours Will it take bus B to overtake bus A assuming bus B starts One hour after bus A started. what is the distance travelled by the buses when They meet?.
mohammed
pls í need help
mohammed
4000 work is done
Ana
speed=distance /time distance=speed/time
Ana
now use this formula
Ana
Julius
great Mudang
Kossi
babar
hey mudang there is a product of force and acceleration not force and displacement
babar
@Mohammed answer is 0.8hours or 48mins
Douglas
nice
A.d
its not possible
Olalekan
í want the working procedure
mohammed
the answer is given but how Will One arrive at it. the answers are 4hours and 300m.
mohammed
physics is the science that studies the non living nature
ancient greek language physis = nature
isidor
what is phyacs
if i am going to start studying physics where should i start?
I think from kinematics
Nancy
You can find physics books at the library or online. That's how I started.
Chelsea
And yes, kinematics is usually where you can begin.
Chelsea
study basic algebra and calculus and can start from classical mechanics
Mudang
yes think so but dimension is the best starting point
Obed
3 formula's of equations of motion
vf=vi+at........1 s=vit+1/2(at)2 vf2=vi2+2as
Ana
benjamin
those are the three .. what you wanna solve ?
Nihrantz
For first equation simply integrate formula of acceleration in the limit v and u
Tripti
For second itegrate velocity formula by ising first equation
Tripti
similarly for 3 one integrate acceleration again by multiplying and dividing term ds
Tripti
any methods can take to solve this eqtions
a=vf-vi/t vf-vi=at vf=vi+at......1
Ana
suppose a body starts with an initial velocity vi and travels with uniform acceleration a for a period of time t.the distance covered by a body in this time is "s" and its final velocity becomes vf
Ana
what is the question dear
Zeeshan
average velocity=(vi+vf)/2 distance travelled=average velocity ×time therefore s=vi+vf/2×t from the first equation of motion ,we have vf =vi+at s=[vi+(vi+at)]/2×t s=(2vi+at)/2×t s=bit+1/2at2
Ana
find the distance
Ana
how
Zeeshan
Two speakers are arranged so that sound waves with the same frequency are produced and radiated through a room. An interference pattern is created. Calculate the distance between the two speakers?
How can we calculate without any information?
Amir
I think the formulae used for this question is lambda=(ax)/D
Amir