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In the given figure nuclear fusion in the Sun is shown. The sun is shown like a sunflower. In the center, helium H e is shown. The energy emitted from H E is shown by outward arrows.
Nuclear fusion in the Sun converts hydrogen nuclei into helium; fusion occurs primarily at the boundary of the helium core, where temperature is highest and sufficient hydrogen remains. Energy released diffuses slowly to the surface, with the exception of neutrinos, which escape immediately. Energy production remains stable because of negative feedback effects.

Theories of the proton-proton cycle (and other energy-producing cycles in stars) were pioneered by the German-born, American physicist Hans Bethe (1906–2005), starting in 1938. He was awarded the 1967 Nobel Prize in physics for this work, and he has made many other contributions to physics and society. Neutrinos produced in these cycles escape so readily that they provide us an excellent means to test these theories and study stellar interiors. Detectors have been constructed and operated for more than four decades now to measure solar neutrinos (see [link] ). Although solar neutrinos are detected and neutrinos were observed from Supernova 1987A ( [link] ), too few solar neutrinos were observed to be consistent with predictions of solar energy production. After many years, this solar neutrino problem was resolved with a blend of theory and experiment that showed that the neutrino does indeed have mass. It was also found that there are three types of neutrinos, each associated with a different type of nuclear decay.

This figure shows an arrangement of shining pegs arranged in concentric circles.
This array of photomultiplier tubes is part of the large solar neutrino detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois. In these experiments, the neutrinos interact with heavy water and produce flashes of light, which are detected by the photomultiplier tubes. In spite of its size and the huge flux of neutrinos that strike it, very few are detected each day since they interact so weakly. This, of course, is the same reason they escape the Sun so readily. (credit: Fred Ullrich)
The image shows what appears to be a big flame at the center surrounded circularly by many small lit candles.
Supernovas are the source of elements heavier than iron. Energy released powers nucleosynthesis. Spectroscopic analysis of the ring of material ejected by Supernova 1987A observable in the southern hemisphere, shows evidence of heavy elements. The study of this supernova also provided indications that neutrinos might have mass. (credit: NASA, ESA, and P. Challis)

The proton-proton cycle is not a practical source of energy on Earth, in spite of the great abundance of hydrogen ( 1 H ). The reaction 1 H + 1 H 2 H + e + + v e has a very low probability of occurring. (This is why our Sun will last for about ten billion years.) However, a number of other fusion reactions are easier to induce. Among them are:

2 H + 2 H 3 H + 1 H        (4.03 MeV)
2 H + 2 H 3 He + n         (3.27 MeV)
2 H + 3 H 4 He + n       (17.59 MeV)
2 H + 2 H 4 He + γ         (23.85 MeV).

Deuterium ( 2 H size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{2} } H} {} ) is about 0.015% of natural hydrogen, so there is an immense amount of it in sea water alone. In addition to an abundance of deuterium fuel, these fusion reactions produce large energies per reaction (in parentheses), but they do not produce much radioactive waste. Tritium ( 3 H size 12{ {} rSup { size 8{3} } H} {} ) is radioactive, but it is consumed as a fuel (the reaction 2 H + 3 H 4 He + n ), and the neutrons and γ size 12{γ} {} s can be shielded. The neutrons produced can also be used to create more energy and fuel in reactions like

Questions & Answers

how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mykayuh Reply
Because I'm writing a report and I would like to be really precise for the references
Gre Reply
where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
Gre Reply
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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