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British isles


In the early century, the Britons of Strathclyde, Wales and Cornwall were all separated by the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. (Ref. 136 ) This was a period of adjustment under the Angles and the Saxons, the latter being the most cruel of the Germanic tribes.

They had probably incorporated the Jutes and Angles before the general exodus from Schleswig-Holstein. The Celtic Britons continued resistance on the periphery.

In 655 the Northumbrians regained leadership over Mercia, which had been the chief power from 642 on, and then the Northumbrians reduced the Britons (then all were called "Welsh") in Strathclyde to bondage as well as the Picts and Scots. The bond was short lived though as the latter quickly broke loose and by 679 Northumbria was again subservient to Mercia. (Ref. 137 ) Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in A.D. 601 and his early achievements were great. After the novelty of the new religion had worn off, however, many English leaders returned to their old ways so that by 616 even the church in Kent was in danger of extinction. (Ref. 43 ) Papal Christianity spread into north England through the increasing power of Edwin, King of East Anglia. In 664, after a conference of English (papal) and Briton (Celtic) bishops at the Synod of Whitby, most of the island became Romanized Christian but Ireland remained aloof. Two conferences of the Roman St. Augustine and his Saxon convert Christians with the bishops of the "Far Western Christianity" of Ireland, failed, and the two camps remained enemies. After that Synod a severe epidemic occurred, the nature of which is unknown. (Ref. 140 ) Bede recorded four epidemic pestilences in England within the 20 years from 664 to 683.

Of incidental interest is the fact that there was no wheel-turned pottery (Anglo-Saxon) in England before A.D. 675. (Ref. 18 )


The Scots, originally from Ireland, as we have previously noted, pushed their way up the Great Glen and approached Iverness before they were finally defeated by the Picts. In the south the Angles were pushing north from England with both cavalry and infantry but the Picts, under Bridei, were temporarily united and able to drive them back in the battle of Nechtansmere in 685. (Ref. 170 , 222 )


At this time the Irish were materially and politically more backward than the English but in a special cultural way they were the most advanced of all peoples north of the Pyrenees and the Alps. Both Gallic and British scholars came to Ireland to escape the Germanic invasions. Ireland was never invaded by these tribes and was never Romanized. Its Christianity was a separate brand which was mentioned above as the Far Western Christianity (2) and which maintained an independent existence and development for many hundreds of years, reaching its apogee in the 6th and 7th centuries.

As in England the yellow plague hit Ireland in 664. Although we mentioned Irish exploration of the Faroe Islands in a previous chapter, some authorities believe that they did not discover these islands until about 690.

Questions & Answers

can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
right! what he said ⤴⤴⤴
what is a good calculator for all algebra; would a Casio fx 260 work with all algebra equations? please name the cheapest, thanks.
Kevin Reply
a perfect square v²+2v+_
Dearan Reply
kkk nice
Abdirahman Reply
algebra 2 Inequalities:If equation 2 = 0 it is an open set?
Kim Reply
or infinite solutions?
The answer is neither. The function, 2 = 0 cannot exist. Hence, the function is undefined.
Embra Reply
if |A| not equal to 0 and order of A is n prove that adj (adj A = |A|
Nancy Reply
rolling four fair dice and getting an even number an all four dice
ramon Reply
Kristine 2*2*2=8
Bridget Reply
Differences Between Laspeyres and Paasche Indices
Emedobi Reply
No. 7x -4y is simplified from 4x + (3y + 3x) -7y
Mary Reply
is it 3×y ?
Joan Reply
J, combine like terms 7x-4y
Bridget Reply
im not good at math so would this help me
Rachael Reply
I'm not good at math so would you help me
what is the problem that i will help you to self with?
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
what is system testing
what is the application of nanotechnology?
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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