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All the patterns then evolve from this basic two-beat pattern. The first beat of the meter or measure is always down and the last beat (the last beat indicated) is always up.

Sing, Be Glad for the Lord is Our God can be used to practice conducting the two pattern.

The three pattern

The pattern for three beats in a measure is given in figure 2. The conductor is reminded to be sure that the third beat is in an inward and upward direction and does not become lazy. This is the beat that amateur singers will tend to rush, causing rhythm and tempo problems.

Evensong can be used to practice conducting the three pattern.

The four pattern

The four-beat pattern is shown in figure 2. In the four pattern, beat two goes to the left rather than to the right as in the three pattern. Again, one is reminded to be sure that the downbeat is given its place of importance at the center of the base of the conducting plane. Some four patterns are described as having all beats occur on the same level except for beat four. It is felt that this will blur the distinction of the downbeat. Therefore, the second and third beats are described as being slightly higher than the downbeat.

Shenandoah can be used to practice conducting the four pattern.

The six pattern

The six-beat pattern has been conducted in two different patterns for some time. Both patterns are given in figure 3. Both of these patterns are used widely by conductors. Figure 3a is most often referred to as the German six pattern. Figure 3b is usually labeled the French six pattern. The latter has certain advantages, particularly when 6/8 alternates between six beats and two beats. Pattern b differs further, in that: (1) beat four, usually the secondary beat in a 6/8 measure, receives a gesture of commensurate strength; (2) the last beat of the measure is a very weak beat and here only receives a small gesture, whereas the pattern in figure 3a has a very large motion accompanying the last beat; and (3) this pattern (3b)can be easily modified to become a two-beat pattern, most desirable for those pieces in which a conductor alternates between six and two beats in a measure.

Which of the two patterns is used will depend upon the personal choice of the conductor. This decision will be based on the type of music being conducted and how comfortable the conductor is with the pattern.

The following excerpt from Gladly For Aye We Adore Him by Lekberg can be used to practice the six pattern.

GLADLY FOR AYE WE ADORE HIM, By Sven Lekberg, Copyright 1972 (Renewed) by G. Shirmer. Inc. (ASCAP) International Copyright Secured, All Rights Reserved

The nine pattern

The nine-beat pattern is a modification or subdivision of a three pattern. The fourth beat of the nine pattern is not as far to the right as the two beat of the three pattern, allowing the indication of beats five and six with ease. The pattern in figure 6 also allows a conductor to transfer from nine actual beats to three beats, which occurs in some instances.

The twelve pattern

The beat pattern for twelve beats in a measure is shown in the second example, in figure 6. This pattern is used when a conductor actually indicates the twelve beats in a measure. There are many occasions when 12/8, for example, is actually conducted as a four pattern. The 12 beat pattern in the second figure, in figure 6, is a modified four pattern with two smaller gestures after the principal beats.

The two added beats after the downbeat are made to the conductor's right, so no more than three consecutive beats will be given in the same direction. This division of the downbeat is opposite of the division of the nine-beat pattern for just this reason. The nine pattern is a modification of a three pattern since its second principal beat is to the right, the added beats to the downbeat must be to the left.

Questions & Answers

what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Maciej
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Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
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Yasmin
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Cesar
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Uday
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what is system testing?
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preparation of nanomaterial
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Choral techniques. OpenStax CNX. Mar 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11191/1.1
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