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+ Branch prediction

+Delayed branch.

  • Multiple streams

- Replicate the initial portions of the pipeline and fetch both possible next instructions

- Increases chance of memory contention

- Must support multiple streams for each instruction in the pipeline

  • Prefetch branch target

- When the branch instruction is decoded, begin to fetch the branch target instruction and place in a second prefetch buffer

- If the branch is not taken, the sequential instructions are already in the pipe, so there is not loss of performance

- If the branch is taken, the next instruction has been prefetched and results in minimal branch penalty (don’t have to incur a memory read operation at the end of the branch to fetch the instruction)

  • Loop buffer: Look ahead, look behind buffer

- Many conditional branches operations are used for loop control

- Expand prefetch buffer so as to buffer the last few instructions executed in addition to the ones that are waiting to be executed

- If buffer is big enough, entire loop can be held in it, this can reduce the branch penalty.

  • Branch prediction

- Make a good guess as to which instruction will be executed next and start that one down the pipeline.

- Static guesses: make the guess without considering the runtime history of the program

Branch never taken

Branch always taken

Predict based on the opcode

- Dynamic guesses: track the history of conditional branches in the program.

Taken / not taken switch History table

Figure 8.3. Branch prediction using 2 history bits

  • Delayed branch

- Minimize the branch penalty by finding valid instructions to execute in the pipeline while the branch address is being resolved.

- It is possible to improve performance by automatically rearranging instruction within a program, so that branch instruction occur later than actually desired

- Compiler is tasked with reordering the instruction sequence to find enough independent instructions (wrt to the conditional branch) to feed into the pipeline after the branch that the branch penalty is reduced to zero

3. superscalar and superpipelined processors

3.1 superpipeline designs

– Observation: a large number of operations do not require the full clock cycle to complete

– High performance can be obtained by subdividing the clock cycle into a number of sub intervals » Higher clock frequency!

– Subdivide the “macro” pipeline H/W stages into smaller (thus faster) substages and clock data through at the higher clock rate

– Time to complete individual instructions does not change

» Degree of parallelism goes up

» Perceived speedup goes up

3.2 superscalar

– Implement the CPU such that more than one instruction can be performed (completed) at a time

– Involves replication of some or all parts of the CPU/ALU

– Examples:

» Fetch multiple instructions at the same time

» Decode multiple instructions at the same time

» Perform add and multiply at the same time

» Perform load/stores while performing ALU operation

– Degree of parallelism and hence the speedup of the machine goes up as more instructions are executed in parallel

  • Data dependencies in superscalar

– It must insure computed results are the same as would be computed on a strictly sequential machine

– Two instructions can not be executed in parallel if the (data) output of one is the input of the other or if they both write to the same output location

– Consider:

S1: A = B + C

S2: D = A + 1

S3: B = E + F

S4: A = E + 3

Resource dependencies:

– In the above sequence of instructions, the adder unit gets a real workout!

– Parallelism is limited by the number of adders in the ALU

3.3 instruction issue policy

Problem: In what order are instructions issued to the execution unit and in what order do they finish?

There is 3 types of ordering.

- The order in which instructions are fetched

- The order in which instructions are executed

- The order in which instructions update the contents of registre or memory location.

  • In-order issue, in-order completion

» Simplest method, but severely limits performance

» Strict ordering of instructions: data and procedural dependencies or resource conflicts delay all subsequent instructions

» Delay execution of some instructions delay all subsequent instructions

  • In-order issue, out-of-order completion

» Any number of instructions can be executed at a time

» Instruction issue is still limited by resource conflicts or data and procedural dependencies

» Output dependencies resulting from out-of order completion must be resolved

» “Instruction” interrupts can be tricky

  • Out-of-order issue, out-of-order completion

» Decode and execute stages are decoupled via an instruction buffer “window”

» Decoded instructions are “stored” in the window awaiting execution

» Functional units will take instructions from the window in an attempt to stay busy

This can result in out-of-order execution

S1: A = B + C

S2: D = E + 1

S3: G = E + F

S4: H = E * 3

“Antidependence” class of data dependencies must be dealt with it.

Questions & Answers

do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Computer architecture. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10761/1.1
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