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A string may be assigned in a declaration to either a character array or a variable of type char *. The declarations

char color[] = “blue”;

char* colorPtr = “blue”;

each initialize a variable to the string “blue”. The first declaration creates a 5-element array color containing the characters ‘b’, ‘l’, ‘u’, ‘e’ and ‘\0’. The second declaration creates pointer variable colorPtr that points to the string “blue” somewhere in the memory.

The first declaration determines the size of the array automatically based on the number of initializers provided in the initializer list.

Example

/* Printing a string one character at a time using a non-constant pointer to constant data */

#include<iostream.h>

int main( )

{

char strng[] = “Adams”;

char *sPtr;

sPtr =&strng[0];

cout<<“\nThe string is: \n”;

for( ; *sPtr != ‘\0’; sPtr++)

cout<<*sPtr<<‘ ‘;

return 0;

}

The output of the above program:

The string is:

A d a m s

Note: The name of a string by itself is equivalent to the base address of that string.

Passing structures as parameters

Complete copies of all members of a structure can be passed to a function by including the name of the structure as an argument to the called function.

Example

#include<iostream.h>

struct Employee // declare a global type

{

int idNum;

double payRate;

double hours;

};

double calcNet(Employee); // function prototype

int main()

{

Employee emp = {6782, 8.93, 40.5};

double netPay;

netPay = calcNet(emp); // pass by value

cout<<"The net pay for employee "

<<emp.idNum<<" is $"<<netPay<<endl;

return 0;

}

double calcNet(Employee temp) // temp is of data

// type Employee

{

return (temp.payRate * temp.hours);

}

The output is:

The net pay for employee 6782 is $361.665

In the above program, the function call

calcNet(emp);

passes a copy of the complete emp structure to the function calcNet( ). The parameter passing mechanism here is call-by-value.

An alternative to the pass-by-value function call, we can pass a structure by passing a pointer . The following example shows how to pass a structure by passing a pointer.

Example

#include<iostream.h>

struct Employee // declare a global type

{

int idNum;

double payRate;

double hours;

};

double calcNet(Employee *); //function prototype

int main()

{

Employee emp = {6782, 8.93, 40.5};

double netPay;

netPay = calcNet(&emp); // pass an address

cout<<"The net pay for employee "

<<emp.idNum<<" is $"<<netPay<<endl;

return 0;

}

double calcNet(Employee* pt) //pt is a pointer

{ //to a structure of Employee type

return (pt->payRate * pt->hours);

}

The output is:

The net pay for employee 6782 is $361.665

The typedef declaration statement

The typedef declaration statement permits us to construct alternate names for an existing C++ data type name. The syntax of a typedef statement is:

typedef data-type new-type-name

For example, the statement:

typedef float REAL;

make the name REAL a synonym for float. The name REAL can now be used in place of the term float anywhere in the program after the synonym has been declared.

The definition

REAL val;

is equivalent to

float val;

Example: Consider the following statement:

typedef struct

{

char name[20];

int idNum;

} EMPREC;

The declaration

EMPREC employee[75];

is equivalent to

struct

{

char name[20];

int idNum;

} employee[75];

Example: Consider the following statement:

typedef double* DPTR;

The declaration:

DPTR pointer1;

is equivalent to

double* pointer1;

Questions & Answers

so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
what is nano technology
Sravani Reply
what is system testing?
AMJAD
preparation of nanomaterial
Victor Reply
Yes, Nanotechnology has a very fast field of applications and their is always something new to do with it...
Himanshu Reply
good afternoon madam
AMJAD
what is system testing
AMJAD
what is the application of nanotechnology?
Stotaw
In this morden time nanotechnology used in many field . 1-Electronics-manufacturad IC ,RAM,MRAM,solar panel etc 2-Helth and Medical-Nanomedicine,Drug Dilivery for cancer treatment etc 3- Atomobile -MEMS, Coating on car etc. and may other field for details you can check at Google
Azam
anybody can imagine what will be happen after 100 years from now in nano tech world
Prasenjit
after 100 year this will be not nanotechnology maybe this technology name will be change . maybe aftet 100 year . we work on electron lable practically about its properties and behaviour by the different instruments
Azam
name doesn't matter , whatever it will be change... I'm taking about effect on circumstances of the microscopic world
Prasenjit
how hard could it be to apply nanotechnology against viral infections such HIV or Ebola?
Damian
silver nanoparticles could handle the job?
Damian
not now but maybe in future only AgNP maybe any other nanomaterials
Azam
Hello
Uday
I'm interested in Nanotube
Uday
this technology will not going on for the long time , so I'm thinking about femtotechnology 10^-15
Prasenjit
can nanotechnology change the direction of the face of the world
Prasenjit Reply
At high concentrations (>0.01 M), the relation between absorptivity coefficient and absorbance is no longer linear. This is due to the electrostatic interactions between the quantum dots in close proximity. If the concentration of the solution is high, another effect that is seen is the scattering of light from the large number of quantum dots. This assumption only works at low concentrations of the analyte. Presence of stray light.
Ali Reply
the Beer law works very well for dilute solutions but fails for very high concentrations. why?
bamidele Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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